This open access book offers an overview of theories related to simulation and describes different simulation areas within nursing. It illustrates how simulation may be used in different levels in professional education. The book deals with the role of the Simulation Facilitator, peer learning and the use of Virtual Reality in simulation. It provides new insights and paths to the development of the use of simulation within nursing and healthcare and contributes with new knowledge from research and experiences of implementation of different simulating scenarios within nursing and midwifery. It is intended to teachers in nursing and other healthcare professionals with an interest in the use of active learning methods.
-Chapter 1Simulation: A historical and pedagogical perspective
-Chapter 2How to use simulation as a learning method in bachelor and postgraduate/master education of nurses? (Iben Akselbo, Ingvild Aune)
-Chapter 3Facilitating learning activities in postgraduate and master in oncology nursing (Svein Inge Molnes)This chapter deals with the oncology nursing students' needs of training in seeing the complex situation for the cancer patient. When the patient's situation worsens it is important to act and communicate appropriate with the patient and relatives.
-Chapter 4Simulating preoperative preparations with focus on non-technical skills in an OR nursing education program in Norway (Kjersti Natvig Antonsen and Janne Kristin Hofstad).Few studies have identified the non-technical skills of the operating room nurse. Simulation prepares the nurses for complex surgical teamwork in clinical practice. This book-chapter presents a practical guide to simulation with an emphasis on the roles of the operating room nurses and interactions within the team.
-Chapter 5 Training Interprofessional Teamwork in Palliative Care: A Pilot study of Online Simulation Activity for Registered Nurses and Nursing Associates (Astrid Rønsen, Randi Beate Tosterud).Successful interdisciplinary teamwork is essential in Palliative Care to achieve quality in patient care. Simulation is usually conduced with participants physically present but because of the COVID 19 pandemic situation, this was not possible. In this chapter we present how the students and facilitators perceived and experienced this transformation to online simulation.
-Chapter 6The use of Critical Response Process as a debriefing structure in simulation activity in nursing education (Randi Tosterud, Jon Viktor Haugom). In the use of simulation as a learning approach, the debriefing phase is considered as crucial to achieve learning. In debriefing the participants reflect and discuss what happened in the scenario. Feedback is an important factor, and research show that there must be certain conditions present to achieve learning from feedback. The Simulating Facilitator and the structure used have impact on these conditions. In this chapter we will present a new structure for debriefing in medical simulation and a study focusing how the structure affects the Simulating Facilitator role.
-Chapter 7 Learning without a teacher: perceptions of peer-to-peer learning activities in simulation training (Lise Degn, Hanne Selberg, Anne-Lene Rye Marcussen)This chapter reports from a pilot study carried out at Copenhagen University College. In the pilot, 5th semester nursing students were subjected to an intensified simulation intervention, combined with other supporting elements designed to increase collaborative and peer learning. One of the supporting elements was a series of peer-to-peer sessions, where students in small groups trained practical skills for mastery learning. In the chapter, we describe the study and analyze how the students perceive strengths and weaknesses of the peer-to-peer format, and how these perceptions seem to be linked to the students' perceptions of learning and authority. We discuss how the method may work as a positive addition to simulation training in nursing education and particularly how it contributes to the students' development of professional identity.
-Chapter 8Train the trainer course How can the skills of a facilitator benefit academic staff in nursing and other health education programmes. (Ulrika Eriksson and Astrid Kilvk) As part of the learning process within simulations, the possibilities of feedback are stated as an essential part of promoting learning. Central to this facilitation of learning is the individual Simulation Facilitator. In this chapter, we will take a closer look at what a Simulation Facilitator course is, what distinguishes a facilitator from a teacher, the importance of a common language and framework and what side effects the Simulator Facilitator competence can have for teachers in academia.
Playful learning with VR- SIMI model- the use of 360-degree video as a learning tool for nursing students in a psychiatric simulation setting (Siri Haugan, Eivind Kværnø, Johnny Sandaker, Jonas Langset Hustad;Gunnar Orn Thordarson)By looking for new fields of visibility, educational institutions can elevate students' perspective and activation so that learning is formed. The potential of 360 video / VR gives the teacher flexibility to create systematic experiential learning, and create emotional learning in collaboration with students. This chapter will provide knowledge about the practical use of 360 video / VR, as well as provide insight into technical potential and challenges. Background on why this method is suitable for promoting nursing students' competence in mental health work will be presented. The chapter's function is to give an introduction and inspire to turn 360 / VR in professional education, especially with a focus on nursing education.
-Chapter 10Virtual Reality (VR) in anatomy teaching and learning in higher healthcare education (Katrine Aasekjær, Beate Eltarvåg Gjesdal, Ivar Rosenberg, Lars Peder Vatshelle Bovim, )The chapter will provide knowledge about Virtual Reality, what this is and how VR is used in teaching and learning anatomy using goggles. Definition and knowledge about VR in education will be followed by an explanation of our pedagogical thinking and decision-making when implementing VR as a digital learning resource in the midwifery and radiography program. The chapter will end with an instruction in how to implement VR in healthcare education using examples and experience from our own planning, implementation and use of VR, from both teachers and students' perspectives
Ulrika Eriksson, Assistant Professor, emergency nurse and Director for Unit for Healthcare Simulation, at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway. Her research and teaching areas are simulation, traumatology, adult learning, non- technical skills and crises resource management. She is an Operations Specialist and Simulation Facilitator at unit for healthcare simulation; NTNU. She is an instructor for Simulation Facilitator-courses
Astrid Kilvik, Assistant professor, research librarian at the medicine and health library at The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU. She has responsibility for the library service for the nursing education at the university. From the term beginning 2021 Astrid Kilvik is elected as a member of the Executive Board of EAHIL (European Association for Health Information and Libraries). She has been a board member of SMH (Norwegian Library Association, Section for Medicine and Health) for many years.
Hanne Karlsaune, Assistant professor at the bachelor's in nursing at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway. She is an Operations Specialist and Simulation Facilitator at unit for healthcare simulation; NTNU.
Therese Antonsen, Assistant professor at the bachelor's in nursing at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway. She is an Operations Specialist and Simulation Facilitator at unit for healthcare simulation; NTNU.
Katrine Aasekjær, Associated professor and midwife at the Western Norway University of Applied Science, Bergen, Norway. She is responsible for the simulation and skill training course at the master programme in midwifery and uses virtual reality in teaching anatomy at the programme. Aasekjær`s research involves developing and use of digital resources in education, focusing on active and collaborative learning.
Lars Peder Vatshelle Bovim, Assistant professor and a physiotherapist at the Western Norway University of Applied Science, Bergen, Norway. He is a project manager for virtual reality training room. He has wide experience and competencies in using virtual reality in both teaching and patient follow-up. His research is related to the use of VR in both teaching and patient treatment.
Ivar Rosenberg, Project leader at the Western Norway University of Applied Science, Bergen, Norway. He is responsible for the digital training and follow-up of the teaching staff at the faculty of Health and Social Science. He has extensive competencies in digital learning and developing digital learning resources in higher education.
Beate Eltarvåg Gjesdal, Assistant professor and PhD student at the Western Norway University of Applied Science, Bergen, Norway. In her PhD thesis she uses VR technology monitoring people with cerebral palsy and their walking function. Gjesdal is also a teacher at her department, using VR in teaching anatomy to students at the radiographic bachelor programme.
Randi Tosterud, Associate Professor and intensive care nurse at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Gjøvik, Norway. Her doctoral thesis focuses on simulation used as a learning approach in nursing education. Her research interest is development of simulation as a learning approach, especially focusing the debriefing phase and how to facilitate for learner centered and active learning. She has participated in building and developing Centre for Simulation and Patient Safety at NTNU, Gjøvik. She is a Simulation Facilitator and has completed the Advanced TeamSTEPPS® Course (NY, USA). She is an instructor for Simulation Facilitator-courses
Jon Viktor Haugom, Assistant professor and intensive care nurse at The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Gjøvik, Norway. As a member of the Simulation team at "Center for simulation and patient safety" NTNU Gjøvik, Haugom has worked as a Simulation Facilitator and Operations Specialist, as well as an instructor for Simulation Facilitator-courses.
Astrid Rønsen, Assosiated professor and programme leader in Interdisciplinary Palliative Care for post graduate students at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Gjøvik, Norway. She uses simulation as a learning approach in different settings for raising awareness in Interdisciplinary teamwork, communications skills, and relational ethics. At NTNU she is a part of a research group in Education quality.
Sven Inge Molnes, Associate professor and programme leader for the postgraduate education in oncolgy nursing at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, Ålesund. Areas of expertise and research are subject development at the individual and system level, prehospital, palliative care, spiritual care, pedagogy and mentoring, simulation, quality in education, interprofessional collaboration and welfare technology. He has published several scientific papers about simulation.
Kjersti Natvig Antonsen, Assistant professor and operating room nurse at The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway. She is a course coordinator and lecturer at the postgraduate program in operating room nursing, specialization in surgical nursing and surgery, medical and natural sciences. She is an Operations Specialist and Simulation Facilitator at unit for healthcare simulation; NTNU.
Janne Kristin Hofstad, Assistant professor and operating room nurse at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway. She is a course coordinator and lecturer at the postgraduate program in operating room nursing, specialization in surgical nursing and surgery, medical and natural Sciences. She is a member of PAFFA research group: Pain and Function after Fast track Arthroplasty at the department of orthopaedic surgery, Trondheim university hospital. Her research area is postoperative pain treatment. She is a Simulation Facilitator at unit for healthcare simulation; NTNU.
Siri Haugan, Assistant professor and RN nurse at The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway. She teaches and supervises students in the fields of mental health, substance abuse and addiction disorders, as well as sociological perspectives on illness and health. She is an Operations Specialist and Simulation Facilitator at unit for healthcare simulation; NTNU.
Eivind Kværnø, intensive care nurse and employed as a Simulation technician at the Simulation Unit, NTNU, Trondheim. He is responsible for running simulations for all studies at the faculty of Nursing. The last 2 years he has been looking at how VR (virtual reality) can be used as a supplement to traditional simulation. He has an interest in how nurses work and learn together in teams, especially in the critical care setting. He is an Operations Specialist and Simulation Facilitator at unit for healthcare simulation; NTNU.
Johnny Sandaker, psychiatric nurse, and head of Center for Simulation and Innovation at Innlandet Hospital Trust, Norway. He is a Simulation Facilitator and leads and participates in several VR-projects in collaboration with industry and other hospitals. He is currently an associate member of a VR-research group at Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences
Jonas Langset Hustad, Assistant professor and Senior Executive Officer at the Norwegian University of Technology and Science, NTNU. He creates educational media in close collaboration with educators. He completed his Master's in Film and Video Production, and was the Chief Executive Officer of Brillefilm, a film company specializing in science communication.
Lise Degn, Associate Professor in Higher Education Policy at The Danish Centre for Studies in Research and Research Policy, Aarhus University, Denmark. Her work focuses on higher education quality, research and higher education policy and governance. She is currently co-leader of the PIQUED project (Pathways to Quality in Higher Education) and has published in journals such as Higher Education, Studies in Higher Education, International Journal of Academic Development etc.
Hanne Selberg, RN, Assistant professor and simulation project manager at the Department of Nursing and Nutrition, University College Copenhagen, Denmark. She is a Simulation Facilitator and has both nationally and internationally been giving presentations on simulation-based training and presented results of projects related to simulation-based teaching. She is co-author on several project reports on simulation and chapters in books on simulation pedagogy.
Anne-Lene Rye Markussen, RN, Assistant professor at the department of Nursing and Nutrition, University College Copenhagen, Denmark. She teaches oncology nursing, palliative care and simulation in the nursing education with focus on acute and critical care. She has responsibilities in relation to simulation across the nursing education at the university. She is a Simulation Facilitator and has participated in the planning and intervention part of the PIQUED project.
Iben Akselbo is an Associate Professor, pediatric nurse and programme leader for master and postgraduate education in anesthesia, pediatric, intensive care and operating room nursing at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway. Her teaching and research areas are pediatric nursing and simulation as a learning method in nursing education. She is an Operations Specialist and Simulation Facilitator at unit for healthcare simulation at NTNU and an instructor for Simulation Facilitator-courses.
Ingvild Aune is a Professor in midwifery and programme leader for master in midwifery at The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway. Her research areas are the antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal period and simulation as a learning method in nursing education. Aune teaches in research methods, as well as various topics within the normal pregnancy, birth and childbirth. She is a Simulation Facilitator at unit for healthcare simulation at NTNU.