Linguistic Media and Training Methods.- Clever Hans Phenomenon.- Clever Hans and Primate Language Experiments.- Cognitive and Communicative Abilities in an Orangutan.- Continuities Between Communicative Abilities in Human and Nonhuman Animals.- Methodological and Ethical Issues in Primate Language Studies.- Linguistic Nativism and the Species Specificity of Language.- Animal Communication as a "Window".- References.- 1 Apes Who "Tklk": Language or Projection of Language by Their Teachers?.- Project Nim.- Differences Between Nim's and a Child's Combinations of Signs and Words.- Criticisms of Project Nim.- Future Research.- References.- 2 Apes and Language: The Search for Communicative Competence.- Project Chantek.- Communicative Competence of Chantek and Nim ..- Conclusions.- References.- Chapter3 Chimpanzee Language and Elephant Tkils: A Theoretical Synthesis.- Theory of Cognition.- Assumptions About Cognition in Ape Language Studies.- Chimp Teaches Chimp.- Conclusions.- References.- 4 Genes, Evolution and Language in Apes: The Nature of the Phenotypes.- Natural Selection.- Phenotypes for Ape Language.- References.- 5 Communication in Primates.- Parochialism in the Study of Animal Communication.- Natural Contexts and Channels.- Semantical Flexibility.- Self-awareness.- References.- 6 Limits of Primate Talk.- Science of Primate Linguistics.- Computers, Animals, and Theories of Language.- Ethics of Primate Language Research.- Conclusions.- References.- 7 Ethics, Animals and Language.- Three Standard Positions.- A Fourth Position.- Language, Personhood, and Nonhuman Primates.- References.- 8 Linguistic Innateness and Its Evidence.- 9 Talk to the Animals.- Language Acquisition and Mentality.- Syntax and Mentality.- Conclusions.- References.- 10 Apes Who Sign and Critics Who Don't.- Specific Differences in Communication.- Training or Learning?.- Extralinguistic Communication.- Communication at First Hand.- Is There Language?.- Logical Types.- References.- 11 Prospects for a Cognitive Ethology.- Defining Awareness and Thinking.- Psychoneural Relationships.- The Behavioristic Taboo.- Communicative Behavior as a "Window".- Social Institutions.- Testable Hypotheses Concerning Cognitive Ethology.- Significance of Animal Awareness.- References.- Author Index.
This anthology was originally planned in connection with a symposium "Language in Primates: Implications for Linguistics, Anthropology, Psychology, and Philosophy," at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. Publication of the book would not have been possible without the support given to the Symposium by many individuals and groups. The Editors thank everyone involved for their kind and generous assistance. Specifi cally, we thank the invited speakers at the Symposium, Thomas A. Sebeok, H. Lyn Miles, Roger S. Fouts, and Thomas Simon. The chapters in this book by Miles, Fouts, and Simon are revised versions of their lectures at the Symposium. We thank Edward Simmel for his encouragement, his patience with our efforts, and his help in planning and directing the Symposium. For their financial assistance, we thank the co-sponsors of the Symposium: the Sigma Chi Foundation/William P. Huffman Scholar-in Residence Program at Miami University, as well as the Departments of Classics, Philosophy, Psychology, and Sociology and Anthropology at Miami. We thank Barbara Johnson, Polly J. Harris and Brenda Shaw for their secretarial and editorial help, and Shirley Gallimore for her patience, care, good humor, and hard work in typing the manuscript. Finally, we thank the contributors to this volume.
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