With contributions by numerous experts
Prosody: Models and Measurements is the fruit of a three-day workshop held in Paris in April, 1982. The workshop was one of a series which is sponsored by the Maison des Sciences de I'Homme under the auspices of the European Psycho linguistics Association, and which aims to bring together workers in a particular field from different European laboratories and to encourage future collaboration across regional, national and disciplinary boundaries. Thus the topic of the workshop - "Prosody" - was fairly liberally interpreted in the invitations, and the participants were drawn from a variety of background- linguistics, phonetics, psychology. Despite this diversity, however, there was a surprising degree of congruence in the topics discussed and points of view adopted. We have attempted in the introduction to the present volume to as well as to account for the draw out the similarities between approaches, differences and to set the individual contributions against the background of current research in the field. The book is not merely a transcript of what was said during the sessions. All of the papers have been rewritten by the participants - in some cases extensively - to reflect the comments that were made in discussion and the points of contact and disagreement that became evident during the three days.
1. Introduction. Models and Measurements in the Study of Prosody.- 1.1 Concrete and Abstract Accounts of Prosody.- 1.2 Illustrating the Two Approaches.- 1.2.1 Intonation.- 1.2.2 Stress.- 1.3 Implications of the Two Approaches.- 1.4 The Contributions.- 1.5 The Purpose of an Interdisciplinary Volume.- 2. A Generative Model of Intonation.- 2.1 The Model.- 2.2 Application to Swedish, Greek and French.- 2.3 Comparison.- 2.3.1 Intonation and Boundaries.- 2.3.2 Accentuation.- 2.4 The Model Applied to Questions and Pragmatic Effects.- 3. Two Issues in the Prosody of Standard Danish.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Sentence Accent.- 3.3 The Representation of Sentence Intonation.- 3.3.1 The Tone Sequence Approach.- 3.3.2 Problems with the Tone Sequence Approach in Standard Danish.- 4. Peak Features and Overall Slope.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 The Peak-Feature Model.- 4.2.1 Background.- 4.2.2 Some Details.- 4.3 Cross-Classification and Functional Relatedness.- 4.4 Peak Scaling and Declination.- 4.4.1 Declination in Questions.- 4.4.2 Declination and Downstep.- 4.4.3 Deviations from Regression Lines.- 4.5 Summary.- 5. Language-Independent Prosodic Features.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Language-Independent Similarities.- 5.2.1 Pauses.- 5.2.2 Fundamental Frequency Features.- a) The Declination Tendency.- b) Resetting of the Baseline.- c) Normal Frequency Range and the Control of Range.- d) Rising Versus Falling F0 Movements.- 5.2.3 Durational Features and Intensity Phenomena.- a) Final Lengthening.- b) Other Lengthening Phenomena.- 5.2.4 Intensity and the Syllable.- 5.3 Prosodic Differences Among Languages.- 5.3.1 Differences in Timing.- 5.3.2 Different Orders of Priorities.- 5.3.3 Different Relationships Between F0, Duration and Intensity.- 5.4 Conclusion.- 6. Prosodic Structure and the Given/New Distinction.- 6.1 The Given/New Distinction.- 6.2 Extensions of the Given/New Distinction.- 6.3 An Experimental Study of Intonation and Information Structure.- 6.3.1 The Data.- 6.3.2 Formal Realisations in the Data.- 6.4 Conclusion.- 7. Speakers' Conceptions of the Function of Prosody.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 The Prosody of Repair.- 7.3 The Repair of Prosody.- 7.4 Conclusion.- 8. Structures and Categories in Prosodic Representations.- 8.1 Intonation and Universal Grammar.- 8.2 Phonetic Representations of Intonation.- 8.3 Phonological Representations.- 8.3.1 Phonological Tones.- 8.3.2 Phonological Structure.- 8.3.3 Underlying Tonal Representations.- 8.3.4 Phonetic Implementation.- 8.4 Conclusion.- 9. Temporal Predictability in the Perception of English Speech.- 9.1 Stress and Rhythm.- 9.2 P-Centres and Rhythm.- 9.3 Rhythm and Temporal Predictability.- 9.4 Modelling Rhythmic Structure.- 9.5 Summary.- 10. Prosodic Structure Above the Word.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Construction of Prosodic Categories.- 10.3 Intonation Phenomena.- 10.4 Ambiguity and Potential for Disambiguation.- 10.4.1 Syntactic Versus Prosodic Constituents, and the Resolution of Ambiguity.- 10.4.2 Perception Test.- a) Material.- b) Subjects.- c) Procedure.- d) Results.- 10.5 Conclusions.- 11. Comparative Notes on Terms and Topics in the Contributions.- 11.1 Accents.- 11.2 Domains.- 11.3 Grids.- 11.4 Lines.- 11.5 Tones.- References.- Name Index.
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