Avian Influenza Virus Table of Contents 1. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus Erica Spackman 2. Avian Influenza Virus Sample Types, Collection, and Handling Mary-Lea Killian 3. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction from tissue and swab material Erica Spackman and David L. Suarez 4. Type-A Influenza Virus Detection and Quantitation by Real-time RT-PCR Erica Spackman and David L. Suarez 5. Detection and Identification of the H5 Hemagglutinin subtype by Real-time RT-PCR Erica Spackman and David L. Suarez 6. Avian influenza virus isolation and propagation in chicken eggs Peter R. Woolcock 7. Hemagglutination Assay for Avian Influenza Virus Mary-Lea Killian 8. Hemagglutination-Inhibition Test for Avian Influenza Virus Subtype Identification and the Detection and Quantititation of Serum Antibodies to Avian Influenza Virus Janice C. Pedersen 9. Neuraminidase-Inhibition Assay for the Identification of Influenza A Virus Neuraminidase Subtype or Neuraminidase Antibody Specificity Janice C. Pedersen 10. Immunohistochemical Staining for the Detection of Avian Influenza Virus in Tissues Mary Pantin-Jackwood 11. Wild bird Surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus Justin D. Brown and David E. Stallknecht 12. Reverse Genetics of Avian Influenza Virus Chang-Won Lee and David L. Suarez 13. Evaluating the Cell Mediated Immune Response of Avian Species to Avian Influenza Viruses Darrell R. Kapczynski 14. Measurment of avian cytokines with real-time RT-PCR following infection with avian influenza virus Darrell R. Kapczynski and Michael H. Kogut
The avian influenza (AI) virus, which is the type A influenza virus adapted to an avian host, has been an important pathogen for the poultry industry worldwide for many years. Although the cause was unknown at the time, one of the first recognized outbreaks of highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) virus occurred in Europe in the 1870s. Since 1955, when the AI virus was first identified, there have been about 24 outbreaks of the HPAI virus in domestic poultry worldwide. Of those, perhaps the most consequential HPAI virus strain to emerge has been the Asian H5N1 HPAI virus, which was first seen in Southeast Asia around 1997. Until sometime in 2003, this strain had been mainly involved in sporadic outbreaks and was relatively contained. Then in 2004, reports of infection in poultry increased throughout Asia at about the same time as fatal cases of human infections in several Southeast Asian countries were confirmed. By 2006, the virus had spread further throughout Asia, into Africa and Europe, and as far west as the United Kingdom.
Contains protocols for virus detection, isolation and propagation, and virus characterization
Includes cellular immunological methods and immunohistochemistry with a focus on avian hosts
Covers reverse genetics with avian influenza virus
Details wild bird monitoring including sampling methods and virus detection