Stem Cells and Myocardial Regenerationn n Table of Contentsn n 1. The Challenge for Stem Cell Therapy: Overview of the Problem: Heart Attack and Heart Failuren Marc S. Penn, MD, PhDn Eric J. Topol, MDn Cleveland Clinic Foundationn n Cells of interest for myocardial regenerationn 2. Hematopoietic Stem Cells for Myocardial Regenerationn Don Orlic, PhDn Richard O. Cannon III, M.D.n National Institutes of Healthn n 3. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cardiac Therapyn Mark F. Pittenger, PhDn Osiris Therapeutics, Incn n 4. Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cellsn Wouter van't Hofn Niladri Maln Amy Rabern Ming Zhangn Anthony Tingn Marc S. Pennn Robert Deansn Athersysn n 5. Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells for Vascular Formation and Cardiac Muscle Regenerationn Silviu Itescu MDn Fiona See PhDn Timothy Martens MDn Columbia Universityn n 6. Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells for Myocardial Regeneration and Angiogenesisn Shyam Bhakta, MDn Mary Laughlin, MDn Case Western Reserve Universityn n 7. Endogenous Cardiac Stem Cellsn Elisa Messinan Alessandro Giacomellon Eduardo Marbann University of Rome 'La Sapienza' & Johns Hopkins Universityn n 8. Embryonic Stem Cells for Myocardial Repairn Lior Gepstein, MD, PhDn Technion, Israeln n Mechanisms and critical pathways involved in myocardial repairn 9. Chemokine and Homing Factor Expression in Acute Myocardial Infarction and Congestive Heart Failure n Arman T. Askari, MD n Marc S. Penn, MD, PhDn Cleveland Clinic Foundationn n 10. Stem Cell Differentiation Towards a Cardiac Myocyte Phenotypen Andrea Ladd, PhDn Cleveland Clinic Foundationn n 11. Electrical Coupling and/or Ventricular Tachycardia Risk of Cell Therapyn Shuixiang Yang MDn Dayi Hu, MD, PhDn Beijing, Chinan n 12. Cell Therapy for Myocardial Damage: Arrhythmia Risk and Mechanismsn William R. Mills, MDn Kenneth R. Laurita, PhDn MetroHealth Campus, Case Western Reserve Universityn n Strategies for Cell Delivery advantages/disadvantagesn 13. Aspects of Percutaneous Cellular Cardiomyoplastyn Matthew Hook, MDn Patrick Whitlow, MDn Cleveland Clinic Foundationn n 14. Open-Chest / Minimally Invasive Surgical Techniquesn Roberto Lorusso MD, PhDn Josè L. Navia, MDn Cesare Beghi°, MDn Fernando A. Atik, MDn Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Brescia and Parma, Italyn n Stem Cell Based Clinical Trials for Cardiac Dysfunctionn 15. Measures of Effective Cell Based Therapiesn Wael A. Jaber, MDn Manuel Cerqueira, MDn Cleveland Clinic Foundationn n Congestive Heart Failuren 16. Whole Bone Marrow Transplantationn Emerson C. Perin, MDn Guilherme V. Silva, MD n Texas Heart Instituten n 17. Clinical Angioblast Therapyn Amit N. Patel, MD, MSn Jorge Genovese, MDn University of Pittsburgh Medical Centern n 18. Use of skeletal myoblasts for the treatment of CHFn Anthony W. Ashtonn David D'Alessandron Robert E. Michlern Albert Einstein Collegen n Acute MI n 19. Bone Marrow and Angioblast Transplantationn Marc S. Penn, MD, PhDn Samuel Unzek, MDn Niladri Mal, MDn Kai Wang, MD, PhDn Cleveland Clinic Foundationn n 20. Strategies for Cytokine Modification and Stem Cell Mobilizationn Stephen G. Ellis, MDn Brian J. Bolwell, MDn Cleveland Clinic Foundationn n Summary/Future Challengesn 21 Summary and Future Challengesn Marc S. Penn, MD, PhDn Cleveland Clinic Foundation
Over the past 5 years there has been great excitement and controversy in the scientific, financial, and lay literature for the potential of stem cell-based strategies for the prev- tion and treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF). Not that long ago we believed we were born with a set number of cardiac myocytes and that once damaged there was no hope to replace them. The interest in the field stems from the magnitude of cardiovascular disease in the world. Our ability to treat and help patients survive acute myocardial infarction (MI) has resulted in a near epidemic of CHF. There are more than 5 million Americans who currently carry the diagnosis of CHF. With more than 1 million MIs a year in the United States, there are approx 500,000 new cases of CHF diagnosed each year. The goal of Stem Cells and Myocardial Regeneration is to present, in a coherent manner, the current state of knowledge of stem cell-based therapies for cardiac dysfunction, including current findings in both the laboratory and the clinic trials. The first section of this Stem Cells and Myocardial Regeneration focuses on the magnitude of the problem and the successes and failures of what we consider optimal medical therapy. It is on this background that stem cell-based therapy needs to build.