Historical Aspects of Drugs-of-Abuse Testing in the United Statesn Lawrence A. Reynoldsn n Specimens for Drugs-of-Abuse Testingn Leo J. Kadehjiann n Drug-Testing Technologies and Applicationsn Jane S-C. Tsai and Grace L. Linn n The Use of Nitrocellulose Membranes in Lateral-Flow Assaysn Michael A. Mansfieldn n Antibody-Label Conjugates in Lateral-Flow Assaysn Paul Christopher, Nikki Robinson, and Michael K. Shawn n Lateral-Flow Assays: Assembly and Automationn David Carlbergn n Oral-Fluid Drug Testing Using the Intercept® Devicen R. Sam Niedbala and Keith W. Kardosn n Dräger DrugTest®: Test for Illegal Drugs in Oral-Fluid Samplesn Stefan Steinmeyer, Rainer Polzius, and Andreas Mannsn n On-Site Oral-Fluid Drug Testing by Oratect®n Raphael C. Wongn n Saliva and Sweat Testing With Drugwipe®: A Reviewn Franz Aberl and Robert VanDinen n Hair Analysis in Drugs-of-Abuse Testingn Michael I. Schaffer and Virginia A. Hilln n Instrumented Urine Point-of-Collection Testing Using the eScreen® Systemn Murray Lappen n Adulteration of Drugs-of-Abuse Specimensn Amitava Dasguptan n Adulteration Detection by Intect® 7n Raphael C. Wong and Harley Y. Tsen n Drug Testing and the Criminal Justice System: A Marriage Made in Courtn John N. Marrn n Drug-of-Abuse Testing: The European Perspectiven Alex Yil Fai Wongn n The Results of the Roadside Drug Testing Assessment Projectn Alain Verstraeten n Trends in Drug Testing: Concluding Remarksn Raphael C. Wongn n Index
A comprehensive review of the science of drug testing in all its aspects, placing emphasis on technologies that use body fluids other than urine for determining the presence of drugs of abuse. The authors discuss the various body fluid specimens suitable for testing for illicit drugs-particularly saliva, sweat, and hair-describe the structural and manufacturing aspects of on-site testing devices based on lateral flow immunoassay, and detail the pitfalls of using these specimens. They also discuss in detail the problem of sample adulteration and its detection. Since oral fluid has the best potential of succeeding urine as the next matrix of choice for drug detection, four popular saliva testing devices are examined: Intercept®, the Drager Drug Test®, Oratect®, and Drugwipe. Political, social, and legal issues are also considered in articles on privacy, the use of drug testing in courts, and the problem of sample adulteration.