Über den Autor
Michael T. Johnstone, MD, and Aristidis Veves, MD, DSc, have comprehensively their classic reference that reviews both the clinical and scientific aspects of diabetic cardiovascular disease. The contributors thoroughly discuss the mechanisms and risk factors of diabetes in relation to hypertension, dyslipidemia, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and congestive heart failure. Their review includes a full examination of the epidemiology, mechanisms, methods of assessment, and treatment of the disease at the macrovascular level, and a discussion of the microvascular effects, including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and compromised microcirculation in the diabetic foot.
Part I. Pathophysiologyn n Effects of Insulin on the Vascular Systemn Helmut O. Steinbergn n Effects of Diabetes and Insulin Resistance on Endothelial Functionsn Zhiheng He, Keiko Naruse, and George L. Kingn n Diabetes and Advanced Glycoxidation End-Productsn Melpomeni Peppa, Jaime Uribarri, and Helen Vlassaran n The Renin-Angiotensin System in Diabetic Cardiovascular Complicationsn Edward P. Feenern n PPARs and Their Emerging Role in Vascular Biology, Inflammation, and Atherosclerosisn Jorge Plutzkyn n Diabetes and Thrombosisn David J. Schneider and Burton E. Sobeln n Role of Estrogens in Vascular Disease in Diabetes: Lessons Learned From the Polycystic Ovary Syndromen Agathocles Tsatsoulis and Panayiotis Economidesn n Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Activation and Nitrosative Stress in the Development of Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetesn Pál Pacher and Csaba Szabón n Adiponectin and the Cardiovascular Systemn Suketu Shah, Alina Gavrila, and Christos S. Mantzorosn n Nitric Oxide and Its Role in Diabetes Mellitusn Michael T. Johnstone and Eli Gelfandn n Diabetes and Atherosclerosisn Maria F. Lopes-Virella and Gabriel Virellan n The Use of Animal Models to Study Diabetes and Atherosclerosis and Potential Anti-Atherosclerotic Therapiesn Peter D. Reaven and Wulf Palinskin n Part II. Clinicaln n A. Risk Factorsn n The Metabolic Syndrome and Vascular Diseasen S. J. Creely, Aresh J. Anwar, and Sudhesh Kumarn n Diabetes and Hypertensionn Samy I. McFarlane, Amal F. Farag, David Gardner, and James R. Sowersn n Diabetes and Dyslipidemian Asha Thomas-Geevarghese, Catherine Tuck, and Henry N. Ginsbergn n B. Microcirculationn n Diabetic Retinopathyn Lloyd Paul Aiello and Jerry Cavalleranon n Diabetic Nephropathyn Richard J. Solomon and BijanRoshann n Diabetic Neuropathyn Rayaz A. Malik and Aristidis Vevesn n Microcirculation of the Diabetic Footn Chantel Hile and Aristidis Vevesn n C. Cardiovascular System: Peripheral Vascular Systemn n Epidemiology of Peripheral Vascular Diseasen Stephanie G. Wheeler, Nicholas L. Smith, and Edward J. Boykon n Noninvasive Methods to Assess Vascular Function and Pathophysiologyn Peter G. Danias and Rola Saouafn n Peripheral Vascular Disease in Patients With Diabetes Mellitusn Bernadette Aulivola, Allen D. Hamdan, and Frank W. LoGerfon n Therapeutic Interventions to Improve Endothelial Function in Diabetesn Lalita Khaodhiar and Aristidis Vevesn n D. Cardiovascular System: Cardiacn n Preoperative Assessment and Perioperative Management of the Surgical Patient With Diabetes Mellitusn Alanna Coolong and Mylan C. Cohenn n Diabetes and Percutaneous Interventional Therapyn David P. Lorenz, Joseph P. Carrozza, and Lawrence Garcian n Cardiac Surgery and Diabetes Mellitusn Tanveer A. Khan, Pierre Voisine, and Frank W. Sellken n Heart Failure and Cardiac Dysfunction in Diabetesn Lawrence H. Young, Raymond R. Russell, III, and Deborah Chyunn n Diabetes Mellitus and Heart Diseasen Michael T. Johnstone and George P. Kinzfogln n Index
The cause of diabetes mellitus is metabolic in origin. However, its major clinical manifestations, which result in most of the morbidity and mortality, are a result of its vascular pathology. In fact, the American Heart Association has recently stated that, "from the point of view of cardiovascular medicine, it may be appropriate to say, diabetes is a cardiovascular disease" (1). But diabetic vascular disease is not limited to just the macrovasculature. Diabetes mellitus also affects the microcirculation with devastating results, including nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the United States, while diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of new-onset blindness in working-age Americans. The importance of this text on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease is evident by the magnitude of the population affected by diabetes mellitus. Over 10 million Americans have been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, while another 5 million remain undiagnosed. The impact from a public health perspective is huge and increasing. As the population of the United States grows older, more sedentary, and obese, the risk of developing diabetes and its complications will increase. Epidemiological studies have identified diabetes mellitus as a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Over 65% of patients with diabetes mellitus die from a cardiovascular cause. The prognosis of patients with diabetes mellitus who develop overt clinical cardiovascular disease is much worse than those cardiovascular patients free of diabetes mellitus.