Part I: Introductionn n General Considerations in the Use and Application of Laboratory Tests for the Evaluation of Cancern Robert M. Nakamura and Wayne W. Grodyn n New Insights and Future Advances in Cancer Diagnostics: Limitations of Conventional Tumor Markersn Yasushi Kasahara and Yutaka Tsukadan n The Changing Role of the Pathologist in the Management of the Cancer Patientn Raymond B. Naglen n Part II: Serological Tumor Markersn n Types of Circulating Tumor Markers and Their Clinical Applicationsn James T. Wun n Identification of Risk Factors for Early Neoplasmn James T. Wun n Emerging Circulating Tumor Markersn James T. Wun n Prostate Cancer Markers: From Discovery to the Clinicn Judith A. Finlay, Stephen D. Mikolajczyk, Thomas M. Pribyl, R. Bruce Wallace, and Harry G. Rittenhousen n Serum Tumor Marker Test Profile in Testicular Germ-Cell Tumorsn Frank J. Liu, Robert M. Nakamura, C. Howard Tseng, and Kevin S. Liun n Autoantibodies, Autoimmunity, and Cancers: Markers for Identification of Early Stages of Tumorsn Robert M. Nakamura and Eng M. Tann n Part III: Cellular Tumor Markers. MHC Tetramers: A Tool for Direct Ex Vivo Detection and Enumeration of Tumor-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytesn Jennie C. C. Chang, Ferdynand Kos, Charles T. Nugent, and Kristine Kuus-Reicheln n New Applications of Flow Cytometry in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapyn Sophie Song and Faramarz Naeimn n Molecular Diagnostics in Neoplastic Hematopathologyn Daniel A. Arbern n HER2 and Topoisomerase IIa in Breast Carcinoman Kenneth J. Bloomn n Study of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in the Staging of Malignant Neoplasmsn Alice A. Roberts and Alistair J. Cochrann n A Marker for Early Diagnosis of Lung Cancer: The Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1)n Jordi Tauler, Alfredo Martínez, and James L.Mulshinen n Part IV: Molecular and Genetic Tumor Markersn n Molecular Techniques in Cancer Diagnosis and Managementn Jeffrey S. Ross, Karen Gray, Rebecca Mosher, and James Stecn n DNA Repair Defects in Cancern Ramune Reliene and Robert H. Schiestln n Chromosomal and Molecular Cytogenetic Assays for Evaluation of Human Tumorsn Peter C. Hu, Vicki L. Hopwood, and Armand B. Glassmann n Microsatellite Alterations as Diagnostic and Prognostic Markers in Patients With Cancern Bret Taback and Dave S. B. Hoonn n Recent Advances in Molecular Classification and Prognosis of Colorectal Cancern Tsung-Teh Wu and Asif Rashidn n Genetic Counseling for Hereditary Cancer Predisposition Testingn Joyce L. Seldon and Patricia A. Ganzn n Diagnosis of Ataxia-Telangiectasia: ATM Mutations Associated With Cancern Midori Mitsui, Shareef A. Nahas, Helen H. Chun, and Richard A. Gattin n Index
In the past, many tumor marker laboratory tests have not been sensitive enough for the very early detection of cancer. However, many of them have nonetheless proved useful in monitoring therapy, following the course of the tumor, and predicting prog nosis. Today, cancer may be viewed as a genetic disease with various specific chromo somal and nucleotide aberrations, such as mutations, deletions, gene amplification, gene rearrangements, and translocations occurring during the transformation of a nor mal cell into a malignant cell. The considerable advances in technology during the past several years have greatly enhanced our ability to detect human cancers in the very early stages of tumor forma tion. These technologies include: (1) nucleotide molecular assays (genomics); (2) proteomics (multiplex protein measurements); (3) DNA microarrays; and (4) bio informatics. Many of these technologies are already helping in the integration and use of multiple biomarkers for tumors. Although the individual biomarkers may reveal only limited information, the use of multiple biomarkers can help markedly elevate the diagnostic capabilities for early detection of tumors.