Part I. Detection of Viral Markersn n Overview of Commercial HBV Assay Systemsn Stefan Zeuzemn n Detection of HBV DNA in Serum Using a PCR-Based Assayn Hau Tim Chungn n Detection of HBV DNA by Oligonucleotide Probingn Hsiang Ju Linn n Detection of HBV RNA in Serum of Patientsn Wei Zhang, Hans Jörg Hacker, Maria Mildenberger, Qin Su, and Claus H. Schrödern n Quantification of HBV Covalently Closed Circular DNA from Liver Tissue by Real-Time PCRn Scott Bowden, Kathy Jackson, Margaret Littlejohn, and Stephen Locarninin n In Situ Hybridization for the Detection and Localization of HBV DNA in Liver Sectionsn Vicky C. H. Lai and Johnson Y. N. Laun n Quantitative Assay of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Serum or Plasma Using Laurell Electrophoresisn Wolfram H. Gerlich, Ulrike Wend, and Dieter Gleben n In Situ Detection of Hepatitis B Viral Antigens: An Immunohistochemical Approachn Jane W. S. Fang and Johnson Y. N. Laun n Detection of Hepatitis B Virus X Antigen by Immunohistochemistry and Western Blottingn Jie Liu and Mark A. Feitelsonn n Detection of Serum HDV-RNA by RT-PCRn Antonina Smedile, Maria Grazia Niro, and Mario Rizzetton n Nonradioisotopic In Situ Hybridization for HDV RNAn Francesco Negron n Detection and Characterization of Small and Large HDV Antigensn Thomas B. Macnaughton and Michael M. C. Lain n Immunohistochemical Detection of Hepatitis Delta Antigenn Karim Abid and Francesco Negron n Part II. Viral Genotypes and Variantsn n HBV Vaccine-Escape Variantsn Ashraf A. Basuni and William F. Carmann n HBV Genotyping and Analysis for Unique Mutationsn Anna Ayres, Stephan Locarnini, and Angeline Bartholomeuszn n A One-Filter-Three-Probe Assay for Defective Interference (DI) Effects of Naturally Occurring Core Internal Deletion (CID) Variants of Human Hepatitis BVirusn Chiaho Shih and Ta-Tung Thomas Yuann n Detection of Hypermodified Middle-Envelope (M) Proteins Secreted from Naturally Occurring HBV Variants Containing a preS2 Internal Deletionn Chiaho Shih and Pei-Ching Tain n Hepatitis B Viral Genotyping with the Research INNO-LiPA HBV Genotyping Line Probe Assayn Sija De Gendt, Fred Shapiro, Jelena Juras, Els Van Assche, Geert Maertens, and Erwin Sablonn n Part III. Molecular Biological Characterizationn n Processing of Hepatitis B Virus Surface Proteinsn Volker Brussn n Binding of Duck Carboxypeptidase D to Duck Hepatitis B Virusn Stephan Urbann n Nucleoprotein Transport of HBV Capsid Particlesn Michael Kannn n Phosphorylation Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein in Mammalian cellsn Jie Li, Yanyan Zheng, Jinah Choi, and Jing-hsiung Oun n Study of HBV Replication Capacity in Relation to Sequence Variation in the Precore and Core Promoter Regionsn Fabien Zoulim, ShuPing Tong, and Christian Trépon n A cis/trans Genetic Test for Pleiotropic Phenotypes Associated with a Frequent Naturally Occurring Mutation at Amino Acid 97 of HBV Core Proteinn Chiaho Shih and Ta-Tung Thomas Yuann n Studying DHBV Polymerase by In Vitro Transcription and Translationn Jianming Hun n Expression and Purification of Functional Hepatitis B Virus Polymerase in the Baculovirus Insect Cell Systemn Lisa Lott, Lena Notvall, and Robert E. Lanfordn n Localization of Duck Hepatitis B Virus Polymerase Within Cellsn Ermei Yao and John E. Tavisn n Endogenous Polymerase Assay for the Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus in Transgenic Micen Zhenming Xu and Jing-hsiung Oun n Transcriptional Control of Hepatitis B Virusn Anneke K. Raneyn n In Vitro Reconstitution of e-Dependent Duck Hepatitis B Virus Replication Initiationn Jürgen Beck and Michael Nassaln n Hepatitis B
Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, there are still 400 million people, worldwide who are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). For them, the vaccine, as currently applied, has no value. Given the possible consequences of HBV infection, the number of those chronically infected with HBV presents an enormous public health challenge. For example, the major etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is chronic infection with HBV. Although fifth in cancer incidence, worldwide, HCC/liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death. The high mortality as- ciated with HCC arises because the disease is often detected late and is unresponsive to treatment. The number of deaths caused by PHCC is expected to rise over the next 20 years. Those chronically infected with HBV have a life risk of death to HCC of between 10 and 25%. Even the limited efficacy of drugs for the treatment of chronic HBV helps underscore the point that this disease is responsive to therapy. Drugs that target the polymerase (e. g. , hepsera and lamivudine) and interferon alpha represent two distinct strategies and show that both conventional antiviral and immunothe- peutic approaches can be used in management. However, the current inventory of therapeutics is inadequate. Interferon alpha is of limited value, only parenterally ava- able, and fraught with adverse reactions.