Part I. Chemopreventive Agent Development Sciencen n Characterization of Natural Product Chemopreventive Agentsn John M. Pezzuto, Jerome W. Kosmeder II, Eun-Jung Park, Sang Kook Lee, Muriel Cuendet, Joell Gills, Krishna Bhat, Simonida Grubjesic, Hye-Sung Park, Eugenia Mata-Greenwood, YingMeei Tan, Rong Yu, Daniel D. Lantvit, and A. Douglas Kinghornn n Preclinical Animal Models for the Development of Cancer Chemoprevention Drugsn Vernon E. Steele, Ronald A. Lubet, and Richard C. Moonn n Potential Use of Transgenic Mice in Chemoprevention Studiesn Ronald A. Lubet, Jeffrey Green, Vernon E. Steele, and Ming Youn n Modeling Human Colorectal Cancer in Mice for Chemoprevention Studiesn Martin Lipkin and Sergio A. Lamprechtn n Pathology of Incipient Neoplasian Donald Earl Henson and Jorge Albores-Saavedran n Quantitative Nuclear Grade: Clinical Applications of the Quantitative Measurement of Nuclear Structure Using Image Analysisn Robert W. Veltri, Alan W. Partin, and M. Craig Millern n Enabling Discovery Through Online Cancer Genome Databases and Analytic Toolsn Robert L. Strausberg and Gregory J. Rigginsn n Functional Genomics for Identifying Surrogate Endpoint Biomarkers in Breast Cancer Chemopreventionn Melissa A. Troester and Charles M. Peroun n Clinical Applications of Proteomicsn Emanuel F. Petricoin III and Lance A. Liottan n Bioinformatics and Whole-Genome Technologiesn Richard Simonn n Models of Absolute Risk: Uses, Estimation, and Validationn Mitchell H. Gailn n Genetic Polymorphisms and Risk Assessment for Cancer Chemopreventionn Sonia de Assis and Peter G. Shieldsn n Design Issues in Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention Trials: Lessons From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trialn Ian M. Thompson and Charles A. Coltman Jr.n n Recruitment Strategies for Cancer Prevention Trialsn Paul P. Carbone, Karen Sielaff, Mary Hamielec, and Howard Baileyn n Part II. Cancer Chemoprevention at Major Cancer Target Sitesn n Prostaten Prostate Cancer Preventionn William G. Nelson, Angelo M. de Marzo, and Scott M. Lippmann n Use of PSA to Evaluate Risk and Progression of Prostate Cancern Bulent Akduman, Abelardo Errejon, and E. David Crawfordn n Breastn Clinical Approaches to Discovering and Testing New Breast Cancer Prevention Drugsn Carol J. Fabian, Bruce F. Kimler, Matthew S. Mayo, William E. Grizzle, Shahla Masood, and Giske Ursinn n Ductal Lavage: Its Role in Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Risk Reductionn Joyce O'Shaughnessy and Andrea Decensin n Counteracting Estrogen as Breast Cancer Preventionn Kathrin Strasser-Weippl and Paul E. Gossn n Colorectaln Chemoprevention of Colorectal Cancer: Clinical Strategiesn Monica M. Bertagnolli and Stanley R. Hamiltonn n Screening in Risk Evaluation and Prevention of Colorectal Cancern Bernard Levinn n Lungn Strategies in Lung Cancer Chemopreventionn Edward S. Kim, Faye M. Johnson, Waun Ki Hong, and Fadlo R. Khurin n Lung Cancer Chemoprevention: An Opportunity for Direct Drug Deliveryn James L. Mulshine and Luigi M. De Lucan n Bladdern Bladder Cancer: Clinical Strategies for Cancer Chemopreventionn H. Barton Grossman, Anita L. Sabichi, and Yu Shenn n Esophagusn Barrett's Esophagus: Strategies for Cancer Preventionn Brian J. Reidn n Endoscopic Detection of Esophageal Neoplasian Brian C. Jacobson and Jacques Van Damn n Chemoprevention Strategies for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoman Paul J. Limburg, Philip R. Taylor, and Sanford M. Dawseyn n Head and Neckn Chemoprevention of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer: Clinical Trials and Future Directionsn Fadlo R. Khuri, Edward S. Kim, and Waun Ki Hongn n Chemoprevention of Oral Cancer: Ri
Despite significant advances in cancer treatment and measures of neoplastic progression, drug effect (or early detection, overall cancer incidence has increased, pharmacodynamic markers), and markers that measure cancer-associated morbidity is considerable, and overall prognosis as well as predict responses to specific therapy. cancer survival has remained relatively flat over the past All these biomarkers have the potential to greatly augment several decades (1,2). However, new technology the development of successful chemoprevention therapies, allowing exploration of signal transduction pathways, but two specific types of biomarkers will have the most identification of cancer-associated genes, and imaging of immediate impact on successful chemopreventive drug tissue architecture and molecular and cellular function is development-those that measure the risk of developing increasing our understanding of carcinogenesis and cancer invasive life-threatening disease, and those whose mo- progression. This knowledge is moving the focus of cancer lation can "reasonably predict" clinical benefit and, therapeutics, including cancer preventive treatments, to therefore, serve as surrogate endpoints for later-occurring drugs that take advantage of cellular control mechanisms clinical disease. Thus far, the biomarker that best measures to selectively suppress cancer progression. these two phenomena is intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN) Carcinogenesis is now visualized as a multifocal, because it is a near obligate precursor to cancer.