Part I. Stem Cells for and from the CNS: Their Source and Fundamental Propertiesn n Sources of Cells for CNS Therapyn Melissa K. Carpenter, Mark Mattson, and Mahendra S. Raon n Neural Stem Cells and Their Plasticityn Angela Gritti, Angelo Vescovi, and Rossella Gallin n Identification, Selection, and Use of Adult Human Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cellsn Martha Windrem, Neeta Roy, Marta Nunes, and Steven A. Goldmann n Generation, Characterization, and Transplantation of Immortalized Human Neural Crest Stem Cellsn Eiji Nakagawa, Kozo Hatori, Atsushi Nagai, Hyun B. Choi, Myung A. Lee, Jung H. Bang, Jean Kim, Jae K. Ryu, Akihiko Ozaki, Min C. Lee, Evan Y. Snyder, and Seung U. Kimn n The Search for Neural Progenitors in Bone Marrow and Umbilical Cord Bloodn Shijie Song, Paul Sanberg, and Juan Sanchez-Ramosn n Part II. In Vitro and/or In Vivo Manipulations of Stem/Progenitor Cells for the CNSn n Signal Transduction Pathways That Regulate Neural Stem Cell Division and Differentiationn Luciano Conti and Elena Cattaneon n Neural Stem/Progenitor Cell Clones or 'Neurospheres': A Model for Understanding Neuromorphogenesisn Dennis A. Steindler, Bjorn Scheffler, Eric D. Laywell, Oleg N. Suslov, Tong Zheng, Thomas Reiniger, and Valery G. Kukekovn n Neural Stem Cells and Specification of Cell Fates: Biological and Therapeutical Perspectivesn Marcel M. Daadin n Manipulation of Neural Precursors In Situ: Potential for Brain Self-Repairn Sanjay S. P. Magavi and Jeffrey D. Macklisn n Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Hippocampusn Jasodhara Ray and Daniel A. Petersonn n Part III. Stem/Progenitor Cells in Representative Therapeutic Paradigms for the CNSn n Global Gene and Cell Replacement Strategies via Stem Cellsn Kook In Park, James J. Palacino, Roseanne Taylor, Karen S. Aboody, Barbara A. Tate, Vaclav Ourednik, Jitka Ourednik, Mahesh Lachyankar, and Evan Y. Snydern n Neural Stem Cells in and from the Spinal Cord, Yang D. Teng, Mary Katherine C. White, Erin Lavik, Shaoxiang Liu, Mahesh Lachyankar, Kook In Park, and Evan Y. Snydern n Stem Cells for Spinal Cord Injury, Paul Lu, Evan Y. Snyder, and Mark H. Tuszynskin n Spinal Ischemia-Induced Paraplegia: A Potential Therapeutical Role of Spinally Grafted Neural Precursors and Human hNT Neuronsn Martin Marsala, Osamu Kakinohana, Tony L. Yaksh, and Joho Tokuminen n Utilization of Marrow Stromal Cells for Gene Transfer into the CNSn S. Ausim Azizi, Emily J. Schwarz, Darwin Prockop, Guillermo Alexander, Katherine A. Mortati, and Barbara Krynskan n Preclinical Basis for Use of NT2N Cells in Neural Transplantation Therapyn Cesario V. Borlongan and Paul R. Sanbergn n Index
Active neuroscientists survey NSCs as potential tools for central nervous system and spinal cord repair by explaining their clinically significant fundamental properties, manipulations, and potential therapeutic paradigms. Their discussion of the fundamental biology of NSCs illustrates the signaling pathways that regulate stem cell division and differentiation, and defines the methods of NSC expansion and propagation, neuromorphogenesis, the factors determining cell fate both in vitro and in situ, and the induction of self-reparative processes within the brain. They also present strategies that may lead to fruitful clinical applications in the near future. These range from the replacement of degenerated, dysfunctional, or maldeveloped cells to the provision of factors that may protect, correct, recruit, promote self-repair, or mediate the connectivity of host cells.