Introduction xviii Chapter 1 Implementing Scalable Medium-Sized Networks 1 Understanding and Troubleshooting VLANs and VLAN Trunking 2 VLAN Overview 2 Trunk Operation 6 Configuring Trunks 7 Dynamic Trunking Protocol 8 VLAN Troubleshooting 9 Trunk Troubleshooting 10 Building Redundant Switch Topologies 11 Understanding Redundant Topologies 12 BPDU Breakdown 15 STP Types Defined 20 Per-VLAN Spanning Tree Plus 21 Analyzing and Reviewing STP Topology and Operation 24 Examining Spanning-Tree Failures 26 STP Features: PortFast, BPDU Guard, Root Guard, UplinkFast, and BackboneFast 28 Improving Redundancy and Increasing Bandwidth with EtherChannel 29 EtherChannel Protocols 31 Port Aggregation Protocol 31 Link Aggregation Control Protocol 32 Configuring EtherChannel 33 Checking EtherChannel Operation 34 Understanding Default Gateway Redundancy 36 Hot Standby Router Protocol 37 HSRP Interface Tracking 38 HSRP Load Balancing 39 HSRP in Service Deployments 39 HSRP in IPv6 40 Gateway Load-Balancing Protocol 40 Chapter Summary 42 Review Questions 42 Chapter 2 Troubleshooting Basic Connectivity 47 Troubleshooting IPv4 Basic Connectivity 48 Components of End-to-End IPv4 Troubleshooting 48 Verification of Connectivity 51 Cisco Discovery Protocol 58 Verification of Physical Connectivity Issues 60 Identification of Current and Desired Path 63 Default Gateway Issues 66 Name Resolution Issues 68 ACL Issues 71 Understanding Networking in Virtualized Computing Environments 72 Troubleshooting IPv6 Network Connectivity 75 Understanding IPv6 Addressing 75 IPv6 Unicast Addresses 76 Components of Troubleshooting End-to-End IPv6 Connectivity 78 Verification of End-to-End IPv6 Connectivity 79 Neighbor Discovery in IPv6 80 Identification of Current and Desired IPv6 Path 82 Default Gateway Issues in IPv6 82 Name Resolution Issues in IPv6 83 ACL Issues in IPv6 84 IPv6 in a Virtual Environment 86 A Last Note on Troubleshooting 86 Chapter Summary 88 Review Questions 88 Chapter 3 Implementing an EIGRP Solution 91 Dynamic Routing Review 92 Routing 92 Routing Domains 92 Classification of Routing Protocols 93 Classful Routing Versus Classless Routing 94 Administrative Distance 95 EIGRP Features and Function 98 EIGRP Packet Types 100 EIGRP Path Selection 101 Understanding the EIGRP Metric 103 EIGRP Basic Configuration 105 Verification of EIGRP Configuration and Operation 106 EIGRP Passive Interfaces 108 Load Balancing with EIGRP 111 Variance 112 Traffic Sharing 113 EIGRP Authentication 114 Troubleshooting EIGRP 115 Components of Troubleshooting EIGRP 115 Troubleshooting EIGRP Neighbor Issues 118 Troubleshooting EIGRP Routing Table Issues 121 Issues Caused by Unadvertised Routes 121 Issues Caused by Route Filtering 122 Issues Caused by Automatic Network Summarization 123 Implementing EIGRP for IPv6 124 EIGRP IPv6 Theory of Operation 124 EIGRP IPv6 Feasible Successor 128 EIGRP IPv6 Load Balancing 129 EIGRP for IPv6 Command Syntax 130 Verification of EIGRP IPv6 Operation 131 EIGRP for IPv6 Configuration Example 133 Troubleshooting EIGRP for IPv6 135 Chapter Summary 136 Review Questions 137 Chapter 4 Implementing a Scalable Multiarea Network with OSPF 143 Understanding OSPF 143 Link-State Routing Protocol Overview 144 Link-State Routing Protocol Data Structures 145 Understanding Metrics in OSPF 146 Establishment of OSPF Neighbor Adjacencies 147 Building a Link-State Database 149 OSPF Area Structure 150 OSPF Area and Router Types 150 Link-State Advertisements 153 Multiarea OSPF IPv4 Implementation 154 Single-Area vs. Multiarea OSPF 155 Stub Areas, Not So Stubby Areas, and Totally Stub Areas 155 Planning for the Implementation of OSPF 158 Multiarea OSPF Configuration 158 Multiarea OSPF Verification 160 Troubleshooting Multiarea OSPF 162 OSPF Neighbor States 162 Components of Troubleshooting OSPF 166 Troubleshooting OSPF Neighbor Issues 168 Troubleshooting OSPF Routing Table Issues 172 Troubleshooting OSPF Path Selection 174 Examining OSPFv3 176 OSPFv3 Key Characteristics 176 OSPFv3 LSAs 177 Configuring OSPFv3 178 OSPFv3 Verification 179 Chapter Summary 180 Review Questions 181 Chapter 5 Understanding WAN Technologies 185 Understanding WAN Technologies 186 WAN Architecture 188 Hub-and-Spoke Networks 188 Partial-Mesh Networks 189 Full-Mesh Networks 189 Point-to-Point Networks 191 WAN Devices 192 Serial WAN Cabling 195 WAN Layer 2 Protocols 197 Other WAN Protocols 199 Integrated Services Digital Network 199 X.25 199 Multiprotocol Label Switching 200 Service Provider Demarcation Points 200 T1/E1 200 DSL Termination 201 Cable Termination 202 Other WAN Termination 203 WAN Link Options 203 Private WAN Connection Options 204 Public WAN Connection Options 205 Metropolitan-Area Networks 207 Extranet 209 Configuring Serial Interfaces 209 Configuration of a Serial Interface 213 Integrated CSU/DSU Modules 214 Back-to-Back Routers with an Integrated CSU/DSU 217 HDLC Protocol 218 Point-to-Point Protocol 220 PPP Authentication: PAP 222 PPP Authentication: CHAP 222 PPP Configuration 223 Configuring PPP Authentication with CHAP 225 Verifying CHAP Configuration 227 Configuring Multilink PPP over Serial Lines 228 Verifying Multilink PPP 230 Troubleshooting Serial Encapsulation 232 Establishing a WAN Connection Using Frame Relay 233 Understanding Frame Relay 233 Frame Relay Topologies 236 Frame Relay Reachability and Routing Protocol Issues 237 Frame Relay Signaling 239 Frame Relay Address Mappings 240 Configuring Frame Relay 243 Point-to-Point and Multipoint Frame Relay 244 Configuring Point-to-Point Frame Relay Subinterfaces 245 Configuring Point-to-Multipoint Frame Relay 247 Verifying Frame Relay Configuration 249 Introducing Cisco VPN Solutions 252 Introducing IPsec 255 GRE Tunnels 256 Configuring a GRE Tunnel 258 GRE Tunnel Verification 260 Understanding MPLS Networking 261 Basic Troubleshooting of MPLS Services 263 Chapter Summary 264 Review Questions 265 Chapter 6 Network Device Management 269 Configuring Network Devices to Support Network Management Protocols 270 SNMP Versions 270 Obtaining Data from an SNMP Agent 271 Monitoring Polling Data in SNMP 272 Monitoring TRAPs in SNMP 273 Sending Data to an SNMP Agent 274 SNMP MIBs 275 Basic SNMP Configuration and Verification 276 Syslog Overview 279 Syslog Message Format 281 Syslog Configuration 281 NetFlow Overview 283 NetFlow Architecture 285 NetFlow Configuration 286 Verifying NetFlow Operation 287 Router Initialization and Configuration 288 Router Internal Component Review 289 ROM Functions 291 Router Power-Up Sequence 292 Configuration Register 293 Changing the Configuration Register 294 Locating the Cisco IOS Image to Load 295 Loading a Cisco IOS Image File 297 Selecting and Loading the Configuration 300 Cisco IOS File System and Devices 302 Managing Cisco IOS Images 305 Interpreting Cisco IOS Image Filenames 305 Creating a Cisco IOS Image Backup 306 Upgrading the Cisco IOS Image 308 Managing Device Configuration Files 311 Cisco IOS Password Recovery 313 Cisco IOS Licensing 315 Licensing Overview 315 Cisco IOS Licensing and Packaging Prior to Cisco IOS 15 316 Cisco IOS 15 Licensing and Packaging 317 Obtaining Licensing 318 License Verification 320 Permanent License Installation 321 Evaluation License Installation 322 Backing Up Licenses 325 Uninstalling Permanent Licenses 325 Rehosting a License 327 Cisco IOS-XR, IOS-XE, and NX-OS 328 Cisco IOS-XR 329 Cisco IOS-XE 330 Cisco NX-OS 331 Chapter Summary 332 Review Questions 333 Chapter 7 Advanced Troubleshooting 339 Advanced Router Diagnostics 340 Collecting Cisco IOS Device Diagnostic Information 340 Using the Output Interpreter to Detect Issues 341 Researching Cisco IOS Software Defects 343 Device Debugging 345 Capturing Debugging Output 345 Verifying and Disabling Debugging 350 Limiting Debugging Output 351 ACL Triggered Debugging 351 Conditionally Triggered Debugging 356 Troubleshooting an Issue with Debugging 357 Verifying Protocol Operation with Debugging 359 Chapter Summary 361 Review Questions 361 Appendix A Answers to Chapter Review Questions 363 Appendix B Basic L3VPN MPLS Configuration and Verification 369 Glossary of Key Terms 375 TOC, 9781587143779, 8/27/2013
rnInterconnecting Cisco Network Devices, Part 2 (ICND2), is the Cisco-authorized, self-paced learning tool for CCNA foundation learning. This book provides you with the knowledge needed to install, operate, and troubleshoot a small to medium-size branch office enterprise network, including configuring several switches and routers, connecting to a WAN, and implementing network security.
In Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices, Part 2 (ICND2), you will study actual router and switch output to aid your understanding of how to configure these devices. Many notes, tips, and cautions are also spread throughout the book. Specific topics include constructing medium-size routed and switched networks, OSPF and EIGRP implementation, access control lists (ACL), address space management, and LAN extensions into a WAN. Chapter-ending review questions illustrate and help solidify the concepts presented in the book.
Whether you are preparing for CCNA certification or simply want to gain a better understanding of how to build medium-size Cisco networks, you will benefit from the foundation information presented in this book.
Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices, Part 2 (ICND2), is part of a recommended learning path from Cisco that includes simulation and hands-on training from authorized Cisco Learning Partners and self-study products from Cisco Press. To find out more about instructor-led training, e-learning, and hands-on instruction offered by authorized Cisco Learning Partners worldwide, please visit www.cisco.com/go/authorizedtraining.
· Review the Cisco IOS® Software command structure for routers and switches
· Build LANs and understand how to overcome problems associated with Layer 2 switching
· Evaluate the differences between link-state and distance vector routing protocols
· Configure and troubleshoot OSPF in a single area
· Configure and troubleshoot EIGRP
· Identify and filter traffic with ACLs
· Use Network Address Translation (NAT) and Port Address Translation (PAT) to conserve IPv4 address space and implement IPv6
· Connect different sites over WANs or the Internet using IPsec VPN, SSL VPN, leased line, and Frame Relay connections
This volume is in the Certification Self-Study Series offered by Cisco Press®. Books in this series provide officially developed self-study solutions to help networking professionals understand technology implementations and prepare for the Cisco Career Certifications examinations.