Über den Autor
Luc De Ghein, CCIE No. 1897, is an escalation engineer for Cisco Systems in EMEA. Luc has been in the networking industry for 13 years and has been with Cisco for more than 11 years. He provides escalation support to Cisco engineers worldwide and teaches others about IP routing protocols and MPLS technologies. Luc has been a speaker at several Networkers conferences. During the past seven years, Luc has specialized in the area of MPLS technologies. Before moving to his current position, Luc was a Technical Assistance Center (TAC) customer support engineer for two and a half years, specializing in routing. He has been an escalation engineer for routing and MPLS technologies for more than eight years. Since 1996, Luc has been a Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE). He is certified as both a Routing and Switching CCIE and as a Service Provider CCIE.
Introduction Part I: Fundamentals of MPLS Chapter 1 The Evolution of MPLS Definition of MPLS Pre-MPLS Protocols Benefits of MPLS Bogus Benefit The Use of One Unified Network Infrastructure Better IP over ATM Integration BGP-Free Core Peer-to-Peer VPN Model Versus Overlay VPN Model0 Overlay VPN Model0 Peer-to-Peer VPN Model Optimal Traffic Flow Traffic Engineering History of MPLS in Cisco IOS Tag Switching to MPLS MPLS Applications Summary Chapter Review Questions Chapter 2 MPLS Architecture Introducing MPLS Labels Label Stacking Encoding of MPLS MPLS and the OSI Reference Model Label Switch Router Label Switched Path Forwarding Equivalence Class Label Distribution Piggyback the Labels on an Existing IP Routing Protocol Running a Separate Protocol for Label Distribution Label Distribution with LDP Label Forwarding Instance Base MPLS Payload MPLS Label Spaces Different MPLS Modes Label Distribution Modes Label Retention Modes LSP Control Modes Summary Chapter Review Questions Chapter 3 Forwarding Labeled Packets Forwarding of Labeled Packets Label Operation IP Lookup Versus Label Lookup Load Balancing Labeled Packets Unknown Label Reserved Labels Implicit NULL Label Explicit NULL Label Router Alert Label OAM Alert Label Unreserved Labels TTL Behavior of Labeled Packets TTL Behavior in the Case of IP-to-Label or Label-to-IP TTL Behavior in the Case of Label-to-Label TTL Expiration MPLS MTU MPLS MTU Command Giant and Baby Giant Frames Giant Frames on Switches MPLS Maximum Receive Unit Fragmentation of MPLS Packets Path MTU Discovery Summary Chapter Review Questions Chapter 4 Label Distribution Protocol LDP Overview LDP Operation The Discovery of LSRs That Are Running LDP LDP Session Establishment and Maintenance Number of LDP Sessions Advertising of Label Mappings Label Withdrawing Housekeeping by Means of Notification Targeted LDP Session LDP Authentication Controlling the Advertisement of Labels via LDP MPLS LDP Inbound Label Binding Filtering LDP Autoconfiguration MPLS LDP-IGP Synchronization How MPLS LDP-IGP Synchronization Works MPLS LDP-IGP Synchronization Configuration MPLS LDP Session Protection Summary Chapter Review Questions Chapter 5 MPLS and ATM Architecture Brief Introduction to ATM Label Encoding Label Advertisement Downstream-on-Demand Label Advertisement LDP Control Mode for ATM LDP for LC-ATM Label Space Loop Detection by LDP Loop Detection by Hop Count TLV TTL Manipulation Loop Detection by Path Vector TLV LDP Address Messages Blocking Label Requests Aggregate Labels VC-Merge Non MPLS-Aware ATM Switches Label Switch Controller Multi-Virtual Circuit Tagged Bit Rate MPLS CoS Frame Mode ATM Reducing the Number of LVCs Summary Chapter Review Questions Chapter 6 Cisco Express Forwarding Overview of Cisco IOS Switching Methods Process Switching Fast Switching CEF Switching Why Is CEF Needed in MPLS Networks? What Are the Components of CEF? The Adjacency Table The CEF Table Operation of CEF Distributed CEF (DCEF) CEF Switching Packets in Hardware Load Balancing in CEF Unequal Cost Load Balancing Labeling IP Packets by CEF Load Balancing Labeled Packets Troubleshooting CEF Summary Chapter Review Questions Part II: Advanced MPLS Topics Chapter 7 MPLS VPN Introduction to MPLS VPN Definition of a VPN VPN Models MPLS VPN Model Architectural Overview of MPLS VPN Virtual Routing Forwarding RD RTs VPNv4 Route Propagation in the MPLS VPN Network Packet Forwarding in an MPLS VPN Network BGP BGP Multiprotocol Extensions and Capabilities BGP Extended Community: RT VPNv4 Routes BGP Carrying the Label RRs RR Group BGP Route Selection BGP Multipath Using Multiple RDs Packet Forwarding PE-CE Routing Protocols Connected Routes Static Routing RIP Version 2 OSPF OSPF VRF Configuration OSPF Metric Propagation BGP Extended Communities for OSPF OSPF Network Design Sham Link Down Bit and Domain Tag EIGRP Configuration Pre-Bestpath POI EIGRP PE-CE with Backdoor Links IS-IS eBGP Autonomous System Override allowas-in Hub-and-Spoke SOO VRF Access Internet Access Internet in a VPN Internet Access Through the Global Routing Table Internet Access Through the Global Routing Table with Static Routes Internet Access Through a Central VRF Site Multi-VRF CE OSPF VRF-Lite Command CE Management Summary Chapter Review Questions Chapter 8 MPLS Traffic Engineering The Need for MPLS TE Overview of the Operation of MPLS TE Distribution of TE Information Requirements for the IGP OSPF Extensions for TE IS-IS Extensions for TE Flooding by the IGP Routing and Cost of a TE LSP Link TE Attributes Maximum Reservable Bandwidth Attribute Flags TE Metric Shared Risk Link Groups Maximum Reservable Sub-Pool Bandwidth MPLS TE Tunnel (Trunk) Attributes TE Tunnel Path Calculation Path Setup Option IP Explicit Address Exclusion Setup and Holding Priority Reoptimization Periodic Reoptimization Event-Driven Reoptimization Manual Reoptimization Dual TE Metrics PCALC RSVP RSVP and Labels Record Route Object Other Information Carried by RSVP Putting It All Together Shared Explicit Style RSVP Messages PathTear ResvTear PathErr ResvErr Link Manager FRR FRR-Link Protection FRR-Node Protection SRLG Used by Backup Tunnels Multiple Backup Tunnels Forwarding Traffic onto MPLS TE Tunnels Static Routing Policy-Based Routing Autoroute Announce Forwarding Adjacency Direct Mapping of AToM Traffic onto TE Tunnels Class-Based Tunnel Selection Cost Calculation of IGP Routes over TE Tunnels Default Cost Calculation Adjusting the Cost Calculation Load Balancing MPLS TE and MPLS VPN TE Tunnels Between PE Routers TE Tunnel with P Router as Tail End Router VRF-to-TE Tunnel Routing Summary Chapter Review Questions Chapter 9 IPv6 over MPLS Introduction to IPv6 The Driving Forces for IPv6 Overview of the IPv6 Protocol The IPv6 Header The IPv6 Addressing Other IPv6 Novelties Overview of IPv6 Unicast Routing in Cisco IOS IPv6 RIP (RIPng) OSPF for IPv6 or OSPFv3 IS-IS for IPv6 EIGRP for IPv6 Multiprotocol BGP Extensions for IPv6 CEFv6 Carrying IPv6 over an MPLS Backbone MPLS VPN Network Using IPv6 over IPv4 Tunnels on the CE Routers Carrying IPv6 over an MPLS Backbone (6PE) Operation of 6PE Configuration of 6PE Verifying 6PE Operation Carrying IPv6 in VPNs Across an MPLS Backbone (6VPE) Operation of 6VPE Configuration of 6VPE Verifying 6VPE Operation IPv6 Internet Access Through 6VPE Supported Features for 6VPE Remarks for Both 6PE and 6VPE Route Reflectors Turning Off TTL Propagation on the PE Routers Load Balancing Labeled IPv6 Packets PHP BGP Functionality Summary Chapter Review Questions Chapter 10 Any Transport over MPLS Understanding the Need for AToM Transporting Layer 2 Frames AToM Architecture Data Plane of AToM Signaling the Pseudowire C-Bit PW Type Group ID PW ID Interface Parameters Signaling the Status of the Pseudowire The Control Word Control Word Functions Pad Small Packets Carry Control Bits of the Layer 2 Header of the Transported Protocol Preserve the Sequence of the Transported Frames Facilitate the Correct Load Balancing of AToM Packets in the MPLS Backbone Network Facilitate Fragmentation and Reassembly MPLS MTU in the MPLS Backbone The Basic AToM Configuration Transported Layer 2 Protocols HDLC PPP Frame Relay DLCI-to-DLCI Port-to-Port Mode (Port Trunking) ATM ATM AAL5 ATM Cell Relay Single Cell Relay Mode Packed Cell Relay Mode Ethernet Ethernet Frame Format EoMPLS Forwarding VLAN ID Rewrite EoMPLS Scenario Examples Dot1q Tunneling (QinQ) over AToM AToM Tunnel Selection AToM and QoS Summary Chapter Review Questions Chapter 11 Virtual Private LAN Service The Need for VPLS VPLS Architecture VPLS Data Plane VPLS Signaling The Basic VPLS Configuration Verifying the VPLS Operation VPLS and Tunneling Layer 2 Protocols Tunneling Cisco Discovery Protocol Tunneling Spanning Tree Protocol Trunk Port Between the CE and PE Hierarchical VPLS H-VPLS with Dot1q Tunneling (QinQ) in the Access Layer H-VPLS with MPLS in the Access Layer Quality of Service Limiting MAC Addresses Routing Peering Summary Chapter Review Questions Chapter 12 MPLS and Quality of Service DiffServ with IP Packets DiffServ with MPLS Packets Default MPLS QoS Behavior in Cisco IOS DiffServ Tunneling Models Pipe Model Short Pipe Model Uniform Model Advantages of the DiffServ Tunneling Models How to Implement the Three DiffServ Tunneling Models Recoloring the Packet MQC Commands for MPLS QoS Moving MPLS QoS from the PE to the CE Router Implementing the DiffServ Tunneling Models in Cisco IOS The Table-Map Feature The Use of MPLS QoS for Ethernet over MPLS Summary Chapter Review Questions Chapter 13 Troubleshooting MPLS Networks Label Stack Depth Verifying Label Switched Path Tracerouting in MPLS Networks Tracerouting in an IP Network Label-Aware ICMP TTL Behavior in MPLS Networks Tracerouting in MPLS Networks Problems with Tracerouting in MPLS Networks mpls ip ttl-expiration pop Command no mpls ip propagate-ttl MPLS MTU Ping Debug MPLS Packets Debugging Load Balancing of Labeled Packets Verifying MPLS on the Interface Verifying Number of Bytes Label Switched MPLS-Aware Netflow Summary Chapter Review Questions Chapter 14 MPLS Operation and Maintenance Requirements of MPLS OAM Detection and Diagnosis of Control and Data Plane Defects Detection of a Defect in a Label Switched Path (LSP) OAM Packets Flowing on the Same Path as MPLS Data Traffic Path Characterization Measurement of SLAs OAM Interworking MIBs Accounting Router Alert Option and Router Alert Label Router Alert Label OAM Alert Label MPLS LSP Ping LSP Ping Protocol Details Target FEC Stack Downstream Mapping Interface and Label Stack TLV Errored TLVs TLV Reply TOS Byte LSP Ping Operation LSP Verification MPLS Ping in Cisco IOS MPLS LSP Traceroute MPLS Traceroute in Cisco IOS Router Alert Label Load Balancing VCCV IP Service Level Agreement VRF-Aware IP SLA Netflow Accounting SNMP/MIBs Context-Based Access for SNMP over MPLS VPN MPLS VPN MIBs Syslog OAM Message Mapping Summary Chapter Review Questions Chapter 15 The Future of MPLS New MPLS Applications Work at IETF MPLS Control Word FCS Retention AToM Fragmentation and Reassembly Circuit Emulation GMPLS OAM Protocols MPLS Labeled Multicast The Proliferation of MPLS Summary Part III: Appendixes Appendix A Answers to Chapter Review Questions Appendix B Static MPLS Labels (online) Index
MPLS has emerged as the new networking layer for Service Providers throughout the world. For many Service Providers and enterprises MPLS is a way of delivering new applications on their IP networks, while consolidating data and voice networks. MPLS has grown to be the new default network layer for Service Providers and is finding its way into Enterprise networks as well. As opposed to the other books from Cisco Press on MPLS, this book will focus on the building blocks of MPLS (forwarding packets, LDP, MPLS and QoS, CEF, etc.) and not on a specific MPLS applications (MPLS VPN or MPLS Traffic Engineering). MPLS Fundamentals will provide readers with a basic understanding of MPLS and its applications. Readers will receive a comprehensive overview of all the aspects of MPLS, including its applications and a perspective on the future of MPLS. Additionally, the reader will be initiated into the world of MPLS and after reading the book, will be able to make a decision about which MPLS application or network design fits his or her needs.
MPLS has emerged as the new networking layer for service providers throughout the world. For many service providers and enterprises MPLS is a way of delivering new applications on their IP networks, while consolidating data and voice networks. MPLS has grown to be the new default network layer for service providers and is finding its way into enterprise networks as well. As opposed to the other books from Cisco Press on MPLS, this book focuses on the building blocks of MPLS (forwarding packets, LDP, MPLS and QoS, CEF, etc.) and not on a specific MPLS applications (MPLS VPN or MPLS Traffic Engineering). MPLS Fundamentalsprovides readers with a basic understanding of MPLS and its applications. Readers receive a comprehensive overview of all the aspects of MPLS, including its applications and a perspective on the future of MPLS.