The Ancient and Medieval Roots of Insurance
This richly detailed history examines the:
"(i) origin and development of the contract of Bottomry and Respondentia down to the 11th century A.D.
(ii) the traces of methods of insurance other than life known to the Ancients
(iii) The Question whether life assurance was known and practised by the Romans or their predecessors
(iv) The history of the development of mediæval insurance in the Low Countries from the family group system and of modern insurance therefrom" (1)."
Originally submitted as a thesis to the University of London by the late Dr. C.F. Trenerry, whose intention it was to recast it for publication. Edited by Ethel L. Gover and Agnes S. Paul.
Introduction and Summary
Origin and Development of Contract of Bottomry
and Respondentia Down to the 11th Century A.D.
CH. I The Origin and Development of the Contract of Bottomry
CH. II The Origin of the Contract of Bottomry, Prior to 250 B.C.
CH. III The Contract as Known to the Hindus
CH. IV The Contract as Known to the Greeks
CH. V The Contract as Known to the Romans
Traces of Methods of Insurance Other than Life Known to the Ancients
CH. VI Marine Insurance (Other than Bottomry) Practised by the Romans
CH. VII Contracts of Indemnity Used by the Romans
Whether Life Assurance was Known to the Ancients
CH. VIII Life Assurance as Known to the Romans
CH. IX Probability that the Romans Had Some Means by which Loss Arising through Death Might be Reduced or Nullified
CH. X Allusions to Longevity, Mortality, Etc., by Early Writers
CH. XI Sufficiency of the Knowledge of Mathematics and of Finance Possessed by the Romans During the Early Empire for the Calculations Required
CH. XII Tables of Annuity Values Which Were Sanctioned by the Roman Law for Purposes of the Lex Falcidia
CH. XIII Actuarial Knowledge Not Essential for Transaction of Life Assurance Business
CH. XIV Manner of Making Contracts of Non-mutual Life Assurance and of Transacting the Legal Part of the Business
CH. XV Nature and Essential Parts of a Contract of Life Assurance
CH. XVI Societies Among the Greeks and Romans Which Provided Funds at Death or Members for Burial or Other Purposes, With or Without Other Benefits
CH. XVII The Roman Civilian (I.E. Non-Military) Societies
CH. XVIII The Roman Veterans' Societies
CH. XIX The Roman Military Societies
CH. XX Non-Mutual Contracts for Payment on Death of a Person or Persons as Known to the Romans
CH. XXI Examination of Other Extracts from Roman Law which Deal with Contracts of a Similar Nature
Development of Modern Insurance from the Family Group System
as Exemplified in Belgium
CH. XXII Derivation of Modern Insurance
CH. XXIII Development of Communal Insurance from Family Group System
CH. XXIV Non-Mutual Insurance Between 1227 and 1310
CH. XXV Marine Insurance
CH. XXVI Life Assurance
CH. XXVII Marine and Other Insurance in Other Countries