Acknowledgements List of Illustrations Chapter 1. Gender Norms and the Language of Economics Chapter 2. The Historical Context: Patriarchy and Community (1600-1800) Chapter 3. The Household as the Economy: Hierarchy and Interdependence in Seventeenth-Century Economic Thought (1600-1720) Chapter 4. The Economics of Cameralism: Redefining the Male World by Separating It from the Household (1720-1780) Chapter 5. The Enlightenment: Civil Society and the Emancipation of Middle-Class Males (1750-1790) Chapter 6. The Enlightenment and the "Character of the Sexes" (1750-1790) Chapter 7. The Household Ideal in a Changing World (1750-1790) Chapter 8. The Primacy of the Public Sphere: the Era of the French Revolution and Napoleon (1790-1815) Chapter 9. "Scientific Agriculture" and the Sexual Division of Labor (1810-1830) Chapter 10. "Every Man is King in his Own House" Bibliography Index
The debate on the origins of modern gender norms continues unabated across the academic disciplines. This book adds an important and hitherto neglected dimension. Focusing on rural life and its values, the author argues that the modern ideal of separate spheres originated in the era of the Enlightenment. Prior to the eighteenth century, cultural norms prescribed active,interdependent economic roles for both women and men. Enlightenment economists transformed these gender paradigms as they postulated a market exchange system directed exclusively by men. By the early nineteenth century, the emerging bourgeois value system affirmed the new civil society and the market place as exclusively male realms. These standards defined women's options largely as marriage and motherhood.
Marion W. Gray received his PhD from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He studied in Göttingen, was a visiting faculty member at Gießen, and has worked at the Max Planck Institute for History in Göttingen and the Arbeitsgruppe Ostelbische Gutsherrschaft in Potsdam. Formerly a faculty member in History and Women's Studies at Kansas State University, he is currently Professor and Chair of the Department of History at Western Michigan University.