Introduction ChaptersI. Etymology of the word 'cretin' (Wegelin) II. Definition (de Quervain)III. Historical (Wegelin) IV. Epidemiology (Wegelin) 1. Statistics 2. Geographical distribution Europe Asia Australia Africa America 3. Racial affinity 4. Relation to endemic goitreV. Course and clinical pattern of cretinism (de Quervain) Cretinism with and without goitre Grade of cretinism Development of cretins Deterioration Spontaneous recovery Influence of endemic goitre on children 1. The sexual distribution of cretinism 2. The behaviour of physical development Growth in non-goitrous cretins Growth in goitrous cretins Development quotient a) The individual parts of the skeleton Behaviour of the skull Cranial capacity Dentition Remainder of skeleton Appearance of centres of ossification Joints Cretin hips Humerus varus Pelvis b) The skin and its appendages Myxoedema Skin shade Dryness of the skin Hair growth c) The musculature d) The behaviour of the endocrine glands The thyroid gland Atrophy of the thyroid Cretinous goitre The parathyroid glands The sexual glands and the sexual organs Hypophysis e) The intestinal tract and its glands f) The blood vascular system Heart Capillary structure g) The nervous system Mobility Neuromuscular system Tendon reflexes MacCarrison's 'Nervous cretinism' Sense organs Hearing disorders Speech disorders Autonomic nervous system 3. The intellectual behaviour of cretins Mental debility Intellectual development Acquisitive instinct Imitative behaviour Self-awareness Emotions Sociability Gratitude Sexual behaviour Psychological functions in relation to body type VI. Pathological anatomy and histology (Wegelin) 1. Thyroid gland Epithelial changes Sclerosis Lymphocyte infiltration Vascularization Regenerative epithelial growth Nodular goitre Malignant epithelial goitr Vascularisation of nodular goitre Functional behaviour of the thyroid gland Diffuse goitre 'Niduses' of squamous epithelium Dispersed aggregations of parathyroid cells and remnants of the ultimobranchial body 2. Parathyroid glands 3. Thymus 4. Hypophysis 5. Pineal gland 6. Suprarenal glands 7. Gonads A. Male gonads B. Female gonads Ovaries Uterus Breasts 8. Nervous system Meninges Brain Spinal cord Peripheral nerves 9. Musculature 10. The skeleton General restriction in growth Physical proportions Development Bone form relationships Skull Trunk Upper limbs Lower limbs 11. Joints 12. Teeth 13. Skin and subcutaneous tissue 14. Ear 15. Circulatory system Heart Arteries Capillaries 16. Blood, and blood-forming organs Blood Bone marrow Lymph glands Spleen 17. Respiratory organs 18. Digestive organs Tongue Stomach and intestine Pancreas Liver Gall bladder Peritoneum 19. Urinary system 20. Further anatomical findings Malformations Blastoma Tuberculosis Syphilis 21. Lifespan and diseases of cretins Average age Causes of death 22. Cretinism in animals 23. Summary VII. Pathological physiology (de Quervain) Endemic thyropathy Metabolism Albumen and salt metabolism Carbohydrate metabolism and basal respiratory metabolism Blood examination Blood clotting Sedimentation rate of red blood cells Dispersion grade of blood albumen bodies Analysis of the individual fractions of albumen bodies in the blood by weight determination Phagocytic activity of leucocytes Ion relationships in the blood Iodine distribution among cretins Analysis of the iodine level in the blood Testing of thyroid gland function, after Asher-Streuli Functional behaviour of the liver Basedow appearance among cretins VIII. Pathogenesis (de Quervain and Wegelin) Comparison of cretinism with congenital athyrosis, spontaneous myxoedema and postoperative myxoedema Scheme of possible influences of the goitre-noxa Possibility of a dysthyrosis Occurrence of thyroid gland atrophy Congenital goitre among cretins Comparison of the anatomical findings with those of congenital athyrosis Dissociation of symptoms Different threshold values of thyroid gland function Heredity Goitre in the mother Geographical dependence of goitre and cretinism Inbreeding Significance of local factors Relationship with Status degenerativus Question on the occurrence of genotypically-inheritable, non-site-dependent diseases due to the goitre-noxa Varying powers of resistance to the goitre-noxa Goitre investigations in twins Question about direct exogenous influence on the embryo Possibility of direct exogenous influence of other endocrine glands by the goitre-noxa Nervous cretinism Question on the inadequate functioning of the other endocrine glands Occurrence of hearing disorders IX. Prophylaxis and Treatment of Cretinism (de Quervain) 'Racial hygiene' Improvement of the hygiene of living conditions Radioactivity of the soil Combating the goitre-noxa by iodine in small doses Prophylaxis through iodised cooking salt Iodine supplement during school age Iodine supplement for the pregnant mother The question of sterilization Implantation of thyroid gland tissue Substitution therapy with thyroid gland preparations Iodine treatment Goitre surgery among cretins Goitre and cancer References Appendix
Responding to a renewed interest in the growing problem of iodine deficiency worldwide, Drs. Charles Oxnard and Peter Obendorf, along with experienced translator and anatomist John Dennison, take a fresh look at the classic text, Der endemische Kretinismus, published in 1936 by Springer. Translated here for the first time into English, this landmark text will be a welcome resource for researchers confronting the problem of iodine deficiency. Oxnard and Obendorf point out that there is very little detailed knowledge or numerical data on cretinism available in the English-speaking world. In addition, highly-renowned Professor Basil S. Hetzel, recently-retired World Health Organization Chairman of the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, published in 2009 with Dr Chen Zu-pei on the resurgence of iodine deficiency in China. Indeed, throughout the entire developing world there may be as many as two billion people at risk to iodine deficiency; perhaps three quarters of a billion have goiter, and ten million may be cretins. Even in developed countries, iodine deficiency is re-emerging (as in New South Wales in 19% of children) with the result of significantly reduced numbers of gifted children (though this is not cretinism per se). Certain to be of significant interest to a wide range of researchers, health providers and professionals, including government health administrators, this English translation of Endemic Cretinism is a major contribution to the literature.
First English language translation of classic text Still the most authoritative and comprehensive account of endemic cretinism Edited by renowned experts