Über den Autor
It is not uncommon for landscape ecologists to rely on advice and input of experienced professionals, albeit informally, in conducting research and devising solutions for applied problems in conservation and management. Given the wealth of expert knowledge available and the risks of its ad-hoc and implicit application in landscape ecology, it is essential to formalize the use of expert knowledge and establish rigor in methodology.In this context, Expert Knowledge and Its Application in Landscape Ecology explores several questions: who are experts; what is expert knowledge; and how is it elicited, characterized, and applied. It contains:· An introduction to the concept of experts and expert knowledge for landscape ecologists· A series of research studies on methods of expert knowledge capture and applications in conservation biology, wildlife ecology, forest succession, wildland fire, ecoregionalization, and marine ecosystems; from Australia, Canada, and USA · A synthesis of the state of knowledge on expert knowledge in landscape ecology, with a review of the advantages and disadvantages of incorporating expert knowledge in landscape ecological applications. The book is written for researchers, graduate students, and practitioners in landscape ecology, focusing on conservation and management of terrestrial and marine resources. About the Editors:Ajith H. Perera is Senior Research Scientist in the Forest Landscape Ecology Program at the Ontario Forest Research Institute, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources.C. Ashton Drew is Research Associate in the North Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, North Carolina State University.Chris J. Johnston is Associate Professor in the Ecosystem Science Management Program at the University of Northern British Columbia.
ForewordAcknowledgementsList of Contributors 1. Experts, expert knowledge, and their roles in landscape ecological applicationsAjith H. Perera, C. Ashton Drew, and Chris J. Johnson 2. What is expert knowledge, how is such knowledge gathered, and how do we use it to address questions in landscape ecology?Marissa F. McBride and Mark A. Burgman 3. Elicitator: a user-friendly, interactive tool to support scenario-based elicitation of expert knowledgeSamantha Low-Choy, Allan James, Justine Murray, and Kerrie Mengersen 4. Eliciting expert knowledge of forest succession using an innovative software toolMichael Drescher, Lisa J. Buse, Ajith H. Perera, and Marc R. Ouellette 5. Expert knowledge as a foundation for the management of secretive species and their habitatC. Ashton Drew and Jaime A. Collazo 6. Incorporating expert knowledge in decision-support models for avian conservationAllison T. Moody and James B. Grand 7. An expert-based modeling approach to inform strategic and operational land management decisions for the recovery of woodland caribouR. Scott McNay 8. Using expert knowledge effectively: lessons from species distribution models for wildlife conservation and management Chris J. Johnson, Michael Hurley, Eric Rapaport, and Michael Pullinger 9. Exploring expert knowledge of forest succession: an assessment of uncertainty and a comparison with empirical data Michael Drescher and Ajith H. Perera 10. Assessing knowledge ambiguity in the creation of a model based on expert knowledge and comparison with the results of a landscape succession model in central LabradorFrédérik Doyon, Brian R. Sturtevant, Michael Papaik, Andrew Fall, Brian Miranda, Dan Kneeshaw, Christian Messier, Marie-Josée Fortin, and Patrick James 11. Use of expert knowledge to develop fuel maps for wildland fire management Robert E. Keane and Matt Reeves 12. Using Bayesian mixture models that combine expert knowledge and GIS data to define ecoregionsKristen J. Williams, Samantha J. Low-Choy, Wayne Rochester, and Clair Alston 13. Eliciting expert knowledge of ecosystem vulnerability to human stressors to support comprehensive ocean managementCarrie V. Kappel, Benjamin S. Halpern, Kimberly A. Selkoe, and Roger M. Cooke 14. Elicitation and use of expert knowledge in landscape ecological applications: a synthesisChris J. Johnson, C. Ashton Drew, and Ajith H. Perera Index
Typically, landscape ecologists use empirical observations to conduct research and devise solutions for applied problems in conservation and management. In some instances, they rely on advice and input of experienced professionals in both developing and applying knowledge. Given the wealth of expert knowledge and the risks of its informal and implicit applications in landscape ecology, it is necessary to formally recognize and characterize expert knowledge and bring rigor to methods for its applications. In this context, the broad goal of this book is to introduce the concept of expert knowledge and examine its role in landscape ecological applications. We plan to do so in three steps: First we introduce the topic to landscape ecologists, explore salient characteristics of experts and expert knowledge, and describe methods used in capturing and formalizing that knowledge. Second, we present examples of research in landscape ecology from a variety of ecosystems and geographic locations that formally incorporate expert knowledge. These case studies address a range of topics that will interest landscape ecologists and other resource management and conservation professionals including the specific roles of expert knowledge in developing, testing, parameterizing, and applying models; estimating the uncertainty in expert knowledge; developing methods of formalizing and incorporating expert knowledge; and using expert knowledge as competing models and a source of alternate hypotheses. Third, we synthesize the state of knowledge on this topic and critically examine the advantages and disadvantages of incorporating expert knowledge in landscape ecological applications. The disciplinary subject areas we address are broad and cover much of the scope of contemporary landscape ecology, including broad-scale forest management and conservation, quantifying forest disturbances and succession, conservation of habitats for a range of avian and mammal species, vulnerabil
Incorporates the collective experience and knowledge of over 35 researchers in landscape ecology representing a diverse range of disciplinary subject areas and geographic locationsIntroduces the concept of expert knowledge and examine its role in landscape ecological applicationsCase studies address a range of topics that will interest landscape ecologists and other resource management and conservation professionals