PrefaceChapter 1 Scaffold Design For Bone Tissue Engineering: From Micrometric To Nanometric Level1.1 Introduction1.2 Scaffold Design: basic criteria1.3 Designing microstructure1.3.1 Hierarchically organized architecture1.3.2 Multi-scale degradation1.4 Surface and bulk bioactivation1.5 Designing nanostructures1.5.1 Micro or nanotexture? 1.5.2 Chemical cues for cell recognition1.6 Conclusion1.7 References Chapter 2 Molecular Scissors - from Biomaterials Implant to Tissue Remodeling2.1 Introduction2.2 Extracellular matrix tailoring by specific means2.3 Proteases and MMPs family2.4 MMPs activity depends on catalytic domain structure and behavior2.5 MMPs natural inhibitors2.6 MMPs in wound repair2.7 MMPs in epithelial repair2.8 MMP involvement in resolution step of wound healing2.9 TIMPs in wound repair2.10 Evaluation of immunohistochemical detection of MMPs in periimplant tissues2.11 Summary2.12 References Chapter 3 Synthetic Morphogens and Pro-morphogens for Aided Tissue Regeneration3.1 Introduction: morphogen definition3.2 Morphogens in vertebrates3.3 Morphogen long-distance transport and local mechanisms3.4 Growth factors as morphogens3.5 Knowledge in developmental biology: lessons for therapeutically-driven tissue regeneration3.6 Growth factors in adult tissue repair and regeneration3.6.1 Use of growth factors in clinical intervention3.6.2 Limitation in the use of growth factors in clinical intervention3.7 Synthetic morphogens, growth factors and bioligands3.7.1 Identification of bioactive sequences by phage displayed peptide technique3.8 Current limitations and future strategies to improve the therapeutic potential of analogue morphogens, growth factors and bioligands3.8.1 Current limitations3.8.2 Future strategies3.9 Conclusions3.10 References Chapter 4 The role of oxidative stress in the response of endothelial cells to metals4.1 Metallic materials for implantation4.2 Aseptic loosening and metal corrosion4.3 Integration of metal implants and the role of endothelial cells4.4 Oxidative stress: ROS formation and antioxidant defence mechanisms4.5 Ti6Al4V-induced oxidative stress4.6 Cathodic half-reaction of corrosion as the possible source of oxidative stress on Ti6Al4V alloy4.7 Summary4.8 References Chapter 5 Comparative properties of ethyl, n-butyl and n-octyl cyanoacrylate bioadhesives intended for wound closure5.1 Introduction5.2 Experimental5.2.1 Materials5.2.2 Experimental techniques5.3 Results and discussion5.4 Conclusions5.5 References Chapter 6 Development of bioabsorbable interference screws - how influence biomaterials composition, clinical and retrieval studies the innovative screw design and manufacturing processes6.1. Introduction6.2. Interference screws classification and design6.3. New design for a bioresorbable interference screw6.3.1 Clinical and retrieval study6.3.2. Innovative design of a bioresorbable interference screw6.3.3 Discussion about the functionality of the new design for bioresorbable interference screw6.4. Biodegradable interference screws manufacturing processes6.5 Conclusions6.6. References Chapter 7 Modeling And Numerical Analysis Of A Cervical Spine Unit7.1 Introduction7.2 Solid Reconstruction Modeling of a Cervical Vertebra7.2.1 Image Acquisition7.2.2 Image Processing7.2.3 Surface Generation7.2.4 Solid Generation7.3 Classical Geometric Modeling of a Functional Implanted Unit C2-C37.4 Simulation of Mechanical Behavior for Implanted Cervical Unit7.4.1 FEA Main Stages7.4.2 Mechanical Effects at the Bone - Screw Interfaces7.5 Conclusions7.6 References Chapter 8 Carbon Nanotubes in Acrylic Bone Cement8.1 The Hip Joint8.1.1 Potential Problems with the Hip Joint and Primary Joint Replacement8.2 Acrylic Bone Cement8.2.1 Composition8.2.2 Polymerisation Reaction8.2.3 Thermal and Chemical Necrosis8.2.4 Mechanical Properties8.2.5 Biocompatibility of Bone Cement In Vivo8.2.6 Effect of Residual Stresses and Cement Shrinkage8.2.7 The Role of Porosity8.3 Reinforcement of Bone Cement8.3.1 Developments in Acrylic Bone Cement8.3.2 Mechanical Performance8.3.3 Biological Performance8.3.4 Polymer Matrix Composites8.3.5 Carbon Nanotubes8.3.6 CNT-Reinforced Biomaterials8.4 Biocompatibility of CNTs8.5 Summary8.6 References Chapter 9 Exploring the future of hydrogels in rapid prototyping: a review on current trends and limitations9.1 Introduction9.2 ECM mimetics: current concepts9.2.1 Scaffold-based vs. scaffold-free TE9.2.2 Scaffolds9.2.3 Controlling the external and internal geometry9.3 Rapid prototyping hydrogels: powerful aid in making scaffold-based tissue engineering work9.3.1 Laser-based systems9.3.2 Nozzle-based systems9.3.2 Printer-based systems9.4 Preserving the mechanical integrity of RP processed hydrogels9.5 Fundamentals on rapid prototyping in scaffold-free tissue engineering9.6 Future directions9.7 References
Developments in the area of biomaterials, bionanotechnology, tissue engineering, and medical devices are becoming the core of health care. Almost all medical specialties involve the use of biomaterials, and research plays a key role in the development of new and improved treatment modalities. This volume focuses on several current trends in tissue engineering, remodelling and regeneration. Leading researchers describe the use of nanomaterials to create new functionalities when interfaced with biological molecules or structures. In addition to coverage of basic science and engineering aspects, a range of applications in bionanotechnology are presented, including diagnostic devices, contrast agents, analytical tools, physical therapy applications, and vehicles for targeted drug delivery. The use of polymers, alloys, and composites, or a combination of these, for biomaterials applications in orthopaedics is also explored. These contributions represent essential reading for the biomaterials and biomedical engineering communities, and can serve as instructional course lectures targeted at graduate and post-graduate students.
Includes the latest results in highly interdisciplinary aspects of the field such as synthetic morphogens and promorphogens in tissue regeneration, the use of restriction enzymes, and endothelial cell response to metalsPresents cutting-edge research on scaffold design and processing for bone tissue engineering, and biodegradable and biocompatible composites in orthopaedic applicationsDiscusses state-of-the-art developments in treatment and diagnosticsHighlights practical aspects of rapid prototyping in developing new implantsOrganized for use as instructional course lectures