I. Small-Angle Scattering and the Structure of Matter.- 1. Principles of the Theory of X-Ray and Neutron Scattering.- 2. General Principles of Small-Angle Diffraction.- II. Monodisperse Systems.- 3. Determination of the Integral Parameters of Particles.- 4. Interpretation of Scattering by Inhomogeneous Particles.- 5. Direct Methods.- III. Polymers and Inorganic Materials.- 6. Investigations of Polymer Substances.- 7. Structural Studies of Inorganic Materials.- IV. Instrumentation and Data Analysis.- 8. X-Ray and Neutron Instrumentation.- 9. Data Treatment.- References.
Small-angle scattering of X rays and neutrons is a widely used diffraction method for studying the structure of matter. This method of elastic scattering is used in various branches of science and technology, includ ing condensed matter physics, molecular biology and biophysics, polymer science, and metallurgy. Many small-angle scattering studies are of value for pure science and practical applications. It is well known that the most general and informative method for investigating the spatial structure of matter is based on wave-diffraction phenomena. In diffraction experiments a primary beam of radiation influences a studied object, and the scattering pattern is analyzed. In principle, this analysis allows one to obtain information on the structure of a substance with a spatial resolution determined by the wavelength of the radiation. Diffraction methods are used for studying matter on all scales, from elementary particles to macro-objects. The use of X rays, neutrons, and electron beams, with wavelengths of about 1 A, permits the study of the condensed state of matter, solids and liquids, down to atomic resolution. Determination of the atomic structure of crystals, i.e., the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell, is an important example of this line of investigation.
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