Images as means of expression have fascinated and spoken to me for a long time. Yet it has been a far-reaching and circuitous journey to syn thesize imagery and visual expression in the present form. Early in my life my interest in images expressed itself in art, first as a young child drawing, then responding to works of art and enjoying the life conveyed through colors, forms, and lines that created recognizable images and suggested different moods. The centering, transformative, and spir itual aspects of art emerged as I sought out art in times of personal turmoil. I returned to the expressive aspects of art through my training as a painter. Later I discovered in my own art, as well as in others' expressions, as a teacher and an art therapist, that many times we ex press more through visual means than we are consciously aware of doing. The writings of art therapy pioneers Naumburg (1950, 1953, 1966) and Ulman (1961, 1965) and Rhyne's (1973) gestalt art therapy provided a framework for my own observations. Workshops and literature on guided imagery opened another door to the inner experience through images. The discovery of Jung's concept of archetypes helped me to integrate images into a mind/body frame bridging from the biological roots of the archetypal images to the spiritual aspects of our existence.
I. Levels and Components of Imagery and Expression.- 1. Imagery in Verbal Therapy and Art Therapy.- Components of Imagery and Modes of Representation of Thought.- Characteristics of Using Imagery in Therapy.- Characteristics of Using Visual Expression in Art Therapy.- Different Approaches to Art Therapy.- Art as Therapy.- Art Psychotherapy.- Levels of Expression.- Different Aspects of Creativity.- Creativity and Art Therapy.- Summary.- 2. Images and Information Processing.- Modalities of Imagery.- Vividness and Control of Imagery.- Cognitive Developmental Aspects of Imagery.- Types and Levels of Imagery.- Types of Imagery.- Cognitive Levels of Imagery.- Imagery Associated with Different States of Consciousness.- Hemispheric Differences and Psychophysiological Components of Imagery.- Imagery and Emotions.- Characteristics of Imagery on Different Levels.- Function of Imagery.- Enhancement of Imagery.- Summary.- 3. Levels and Functions of Symbolism.- Components and Developmental Aspects of Symbols.- Components Inherent in Symbols.- Developmental Aspects of Symbol Formation.- Conditions Contributing to the Emergence of Symbols.- Function and Meaning of Symbols.- Levels of Symbols.- Personal or Freudian Symbolism.- Jung's Approach to Universal Symbolism.- Levels of Universal Symbols.- Symbolic Unfolding of the Psyche and the Neurotic Distortion of This Process.- Summary.- 4. Depicting and Integrating Images.- Line and Form.- Line.- Form.- Gestalts or Configurations.- Differentiation of Space.- Visual Syntax.- Color.- Multileveledness of Visual Expression.- Media Properties, Mediators, and Reflective Distance.- Expressive Styles.- Summary.- 5. Levels of Expression and Systems Approach to Therapy.- The Expressive Therapies Continuum (ETC).- The Function of Imagery on Different Levels of the ETC.- Media Use at the Different Levels of the ETC.- Kinesthetic Level.- Sensory Level.- Perceptual Level.- Affective Level.- Cognitive Level.- Symbolic Level.- Creative Level.- Different Levels of Expression in Art Therapy.- Systems Approach to Imagery.- Systems Approach to Art Therapy.- Summary.- II. Function and Processes of Imagery and Visual Expression in Therapy.- 6. Connections and Disconnections between Levels of Representation and Expression.- Connection, Emergence, and Disconnection of Information Processing.- Connections.- Disconnections.- Interaction between Imagery and Emotions in Therapy.- Imagery and Resistances.- Enhancement of Connection and Emergent Function through Art Media.- Visual Expression of Resistances and Defenses.- Dealing with Resistances in Art Therapy.- Indications and Contraindications in Using Verbal vs. Visual Expressions of Imagery.- Summary.- 7. Active Imagination, Guided Daydreams, and Dreams.- The Flow of Imagery and Fantasy.- Consciousness and the Unconscious.- Active Imagination.- Guided Affective Imagery.- Therapeutic Use of Visual Expressions of Guided Imagery.- Structure and Function of Dreams.- Cognitive Development of Dreams.- Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Approaches to Dreams.- Jung's Approach to Dreams.- Expression of Dreams in Art Therapy.- Summary.- 8. Daydreaming and Adolescent Depression.- Function of Daydreaming.- Patterns and Styles of Daydreaming.- Daydreaming Styles and Dreams.- Play as Antecedent of Daydreaming.- Daydreaming in Adolescence.- Depression in Adolescence.- Levels of Depression in Adolescents.- Depressive Fantasy Themes.- Depressive Dream Themes.- Depression and Daydreaming.- Daydreaming and Aggression.- Imagery Approaches to Depression.- Art Therapy Approaches to Depression.- Self-Esteem, Daydreaming, and Depression.- Summary.- 9. Images of Disintegration and Integration in Psychosis and Schizophrenia.- The Schizophrenic Experience of Perceptual and Cognitive Disturbances.- Visual Expressions of Schizophreniform Patients.- Representations of Body Image, Space, Movement, and Time by Schizophreniform Patients.- Art Therapy with Schizophreniform Patients.- Expressive Qualities an
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