1 Introduction to Lipids.- Definition and classification.- Nomenclature of lipids.- Historical aspects of fungal lipid research.- 2 Fungal Lipids.- Total lipid content.- Vegetative hyphae and yeast cells.- Spores and sclerotia.- Lipid composition.- Lipid functions.- Subcellular distribution of lipids.- Cell wall.- Protoplast.- Relation of culture conditions to fungal growth and lipid production.- Temperature.- Carbon source.- Inorganic nutrients.- pH.- Aeration (oxygen).- Growth factors.- Fungal growth and lipid production.- 3 Fatty Acids.- Nomenclature and structure.- Fatty acids in fungi.- Phycomycetes.- Ascomycetes and Fungi Imperfecti.- Basidiomycetes.- Fatty acids of cell walls and membranes.- Cell wall.- Plasmalemma and mitochondrial membranes.- 4 Fatty Acid Metabolism.- Fatty acid biosynthesis.- Origin of substrates for fatty acid biosynthesis.- De novo fatty acid synthesis.- Regulation of de novo fatty acid synthesis.- Fatty acid elongation.- Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids.- Biosynthesis of unusual fatty acids.- Fatty acid degradation.- 5 Acylglycerols and Related Lipids.- to acylglycerols.- Structure and nomenclature.- Occurrence in fungi.- Biosynthesis of triacylglycerides.- Lipases.- Glycosylglycerides and other glycolipids.- Methyl, ethyl, and sterol esters.- 6 Glycerophospholipids.- Nomenclature and structure.- Occurrence in fungi.- Yeasts.- Filamentous fungi.- Glycerophospholipids of subcellular fractions.- Acyl groups of glycerophospholipids.- Biosynthesis.- Phosphatidic acid.- Phosphatidylcholine.- Phosphatidylethanolamine.- Phosphatidylserine.- Phosphatidylinositol.- Diphosphatidylglycerol (cardiolipin).- Plasmanic and plasmenic acid derivatives.- Degradation.- 7 Sphingolipids.- Structure and nomenclature.- Occurrence.- Bacteria, plants, and animals.- Fungi.- Sphingolipid metabolism.- Biosynthesis.- Degradation.- 8 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons.- Occurrence in fungi.- Hydrocarbon biosynthesis.- Oxidation of hydrocarbons.- Cornynebacterium 7EIC.- Pseudomonas olevorans.- Mammals.- Yeasts.- Higher plants.- 9 Sterols, Carotenoids, and Polyprenols.- Sterols.- Structure and nomenclature.- Occurrence in fungi.- Phycomycetes.- Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes (Fungi Imperfecti).- Basidiomycetes.- Sterols of photosynthetic plants and bacteria.- to carotenoids.- Structure and nomenclature.- Occurrence in fungi.- Polyprenols.- 10 Biosynthesis of Sterols, Carotenoids, and Polyprenols.- to sterol biosynthesis.- Formation of squalene.- Conversion of squalene to lanosterol.- Terminal reactions of sterol biosynthesis.- Demethylation.- C-24 alkylation and other side-chain modifications.- Nuclear double bond shift, formation, and reduction.- Pathway of ergosterol biosynthesis.- Carotenoid biosynthesis.- Biosynthesis of polyprenols.- 11 Lipid Metabolism During Fungal Development.- Spore germination.- Lipophilic stimulators of spore germination.- Electron microscopic observations of lipid bodies in fungal spores.- Lipid metabolism during germination.- Reproductive growth.- Lipid metabolism during sporulation.- References.
Only six years have passed since the precursor to this book, "Fungal Lipid Biochemistry," was published. It seemed to satisfy the need of a central comprehensive reference to which students and researchers could turn for information on the lipid composition and metabolism in fungi. This book was concerned with the distribution and biochemistry of lipids in fungi, and in many instances lipid metabolism was presented in a comparative context. The principal lipids covered were the aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, sterols, acylglycerols, phospholipids, and sphingolipids. The final two chapters of the book, contributed by Drs. William Hess and Darrell J. Weber, summarized fungal metabolism and ultrastructure during fungal spore germination and sporula tion. The information in that book has been completely re-written, re-organized, expanded, updated, and is now pre sented under the altered title of LIPID BIOCHEMISTRY of Fungi and Other Organisms. Some of the noteworthy additions in clude (1) an expanded presentation of lipid classification, (2) brief description of the historical development of re search on fungal lipids, (3) expanded presentation of lipid production during vegetative growth, and in relation to nutrient utilization, (4) the relatively new interpretation of the yeast fatty acid synthetase as a multifunctional enzyme rather than multienzyme complex, (5) the chemistry, distribution, and biosynthesis of polyprenols and carote noids, and (6) condensation of the information on spore germination and sporulation into one chapter with greater emphasis on the involvement and role of lipids in these processes.
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