Section One Laboratory Information Concepts.- 1 Introduction to Laboratory Information Management.- Information, Knowledge, Intelligence, Experience.- The Value of Information.- How Much Information Do We Need?.- Management Trends and Information.- Information and Quality.- Dependence on Laboratory Information.- Why Do We Need to Manage Laboratory Information.- Managing Change in the Laboratory.- A New Computer Application Technology Is Born.- What Is Laboratory Information?.- Requirements for a LIMS.- Summary.- 2 Laboratories, Laboratory Information, Computers.- Laboratories.- Laboratory Information.- Computers.- Computers and Laboratory Communications.- Information Management and Computers.- Computer Applications.- Summary.- 3 Laboratory Automation.- A Recollection of Days Gone By.- Automation versus Mechanization.- What Is Laboratory Automation?.- Automated Laboratory Instrumentation.- Automated Laboratory Information Management.- Relationship Between Laboratory Automation and LIMS.- Summary.- Section Two LIMS Functions.- 4 Introduction to Laboratory Information Management Systems.- LIMS Champion.- Similarity of Commercially Available LIMS.- The LIMS Environment.- Status.- LIMS Functions.- Sequencing of LIMS Standard Functions.- Core Functions.- Differences Among LIMS.- Database Technology.- Customization and Tailorability.- Summary.- 5 Sample LOGIN and Collection Lists.- Sample LOGIN.- Prelogged Samples.- Postlogged Samples.- Required Tests and Default Test Codes.- Barcode Labels.- Access to User-Written Code during Sample LOGIN.- Collection Lists.- Summary.- 6 Sample RECEIVE, Worksheets, Worklists.- Sample RECEIVE.- Worksheets and Worklists.- Summary.- 7 Test Results Entry.- Manual Results Entry.- Manual Results Entry Sample (MRS).- Manual Results Entry Test Code (MRT).- Manual Results Entry Worksheet (MRW).- Automated Results Entry.- Data Acquisition Systems.- Instrument Management System.- Communications Standards.- Access to User-Written Code during Results Entry.- Summary.- 8 Result Verification and Reporting Results.- Result Verification.- Manual Result Verification.- Automatic Result Verification.- Reporting Results.- Standard Results Reports.- Ad Hoc Reporting.- Automatic Results Reporting.- Summary.- Section Three Using, Choosing, and Managing.- 9 LIMS Setup.- Preinstallation Planning.- Security.- Access to the LIMS.- Access to LIMS Functions.- Summary.- 10 LIMS Supervisory Functions.- Supervisory Function Descriptions.- Archive Function.- Audit Report.- Backlog Report.- Control Report.- Device Report.- Directory List.- Status Report.- Trend Report.- Turnaround Report.- Summary.- 11 Managing a LIMS.- Factors That Influence LIMS Management.- Size and Complexity of the LIMS.- Elements of Change.- Determining System Requirements: Preselection Planning.- Selecting the LIMS Software.- Computer Software System Life Span.- Buy-In.- Summary.- Section Four Getting the Most Out of LIMS.- 12 Customization and Tailoring of LIMS.- Customization.- Customization of LIMS/SM.- User Event Routine (UER).- User Action Routine (UAR).- Data Reduction Algorithm (DRA).- Tailoring.- Tailoring LIMS/SM.- Tailoring ACCESS LIMS.- Summary.- 13 LIMS Training-Getting the Most for Your Money.- Computer Training-General Considerations.- LIMS Training.- There Is a Difference.- Customized Modules and Organized Classes.- Hands-On Training.- Off-the-Job Navigational Training.- Planning the Training.- Training Time Requirements.- When Should Training Be Done?.- How Should Outside Training Be Used?.- Who Is the Best Instructor For LIMS Training?.- Pilot Training Classes.- LIMS Manager Training.- Summary.- 14 Validation of Computer Systems.- Background and General Overview.- What Is Computer System Validation?.- What Is It?.- The SOP.- The Validation Protocol.- Validation Life Cycle.- Validation of Existing Computer Systems.- Why Do We Need to Validate Computer Systems?.- Hardware.- Software.- Basic Design of Hardware and Software.- Environmental Fac
Computing and information management technologies touch our lives in the environments where we live, play and, work. High tech is becoming the standard. Those of use who work in a laboratory environment are faced with an obvious challenge. How do we best apply these technol ogies to make money for our companies? The first level of deliverable benefits is achieved through task automation. The second level is ob tained by integrating the individual islands of automation. The third, or top level, of benefits is related to applying intelligence to computing applications. The use of computing technology, at level one, to automate lab pro cedures, methods, and instruments has been profitable for many years. We can easily find yearly returns in the range of 10-50% for investments at this level. For level two, the integration of some applications has evolved and has led to data management systems and local area net working in the lab environment. Investment paybacks at level two are substantially higher, in the range of 200-400%. Examples of applications at the top level, that of intelligent systems and applications, are few and far between. And what about the payback for investments at this level? With such limited experience at level three, we can only estimate the benefits. But again, they appear to be much higher, in the range of 2000- 4000%.
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