Elf and VLF Signal Properties: Physical Characteristics.- Electric and Magnetic Field Strengths in the open and in Shielded Rooms in the ULF- to LF-Zone.- Behavioural Changes in Human Subjects Associated With ELF Electric Fields.- ELF-Effects on Human Circadian Rhythms.- Operant Methods Assessing the Effects of ELF Electromagnetic Fields.- Behavioural, Physiological, and Histological Changes in Rats Exposed During Various Developmental Stages To ELF Magnetic Fields.- Oxygen and Biochemical Changes Following ELF Exposure.- Precambrian ELF and Abiogenesis.- ELF Electric and Magnetic Field Effects: The Patterns and the Problems.- Contributors.
Recent emphasis upon the importance of the physical environment has made science and the public even more cog nizant of the many components of the biosphere. While much attention has been given to ionizing electromagnetic stimuli which causes blatant and unalterable changes in biological systems, relatively little research has been concerned with those electromagnetic signals whose frequencies overlap with time-varying processes in living organisms. Extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields can occur as waves between about I Hz to 100 Hz or as short pulses within this range of very low frequency (VLF) and higher frequency sources. The natural occurrence of ELF signals is associated with weather changes, solar disturbances and geophysical ionospheric perturbations. Man-made sources have also been reported. Certain physical properties of ELF signals make them excellent candidates for biologically important stimuli. Unlike many other weather components, ELF signals have the capacity to penetrate structures which house living organ isms. ELF wave configurations allow long distance propaga tional capacities without appreciable attenuation of inten sity, thus making them antecedent stimuli to approaching weather changes. Most importantly, ELF signals exhibit the frequencies and wave forms of bio-electrical events that occur within the brain and body. Thus resonance inter actions between animal and nature become attractive possi bilities.
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