1 Introduction.- 1.1 What Is Corrosion?.- 1.2 The Cost of Corrosion.- 1.3 Safety and Environmental Factors.- 1.4 Corrosion Organizations and Journals.- 2 Basic Corrosion Theory.- 2.1 Thermodynamics.- 2.2 Electrode Reactions.- 2.3 Electrode Potentials.- 2.4 Corrosion Products and Passivity.- 2.5 Classifications of Corrosion.- *2.6 Pourbaix Diagrams.- 2.7 Corrosion Rates.- Study Problems.- *3 Electrochemical Corrosion Theory.- 3.1 Exchange Current Density.- 3.2 Activation Polarization.- 3.3 Concentration Polarization.- 3.4 Resistance Polarization.- 3.5 Polarization Diagrams.- Study Problems.- 4 Metallurgical Cells.- 4.1 Metal Purity.- 4.2 Crystal Defects.- 4.3 Grain Structure.- 4.4 Solid Solution Alloys.- 4.5 Galvanic Corrosion.- 4.6 Dealloying.- 4.7 Intergranular Corrosion.- 4.8 Corrosion of Multiphase Alloys.- 4.9 Stress Cells.- Study Problems.- 5 Environmental Cells.- 5.1 Corrosive Concentration.- 5.2 Velocity.- 5.3 Temperature.- *5.4 Polarization Curves.- 5.5 Crevice Corrosion.- 5.6 Pitting.- 5.7 Microbial Corrosion.- 5.8 Temperature Cells.- 5.9 Condensate Corrosion.- 5.10 Stray Current Corrosion.- Study Problems.- 6 Corrosive-Mechanical Interactions.- 6.1 Erosion-Corrosion.- 6.2 Corrosive Wear.- 6.3 Corrosion Fatigue.- 6.4 Hydrogen Damage.- 6.5 Stress-Corrosion Cracking.- Study Problems.- 7 Corrosion in Major Environments.- 7.1 Natural Environments.- 7.2 Organic Environments.- 7.3 Mineral Acids.- 7.4 Common Inorganics.- Study Problems.- 8 Corrosion Measurement and Failure Analysis.- 8.1 Types of Tests.- 8.2 Laboratory Tests.- 8.3 Test Specimens.- 8.4 Electronic Probes.- 8.5 Failure Analysis.- Study Problems.- 9 Materials Selection.- 9.1 Stainless Steels.- 9.2 Nickel and Nickel Alloys.- 9.3 Other Metals and Alloys.- 9.4 Plastics.- 9.5 Other Nonmetallics.- Study Problems.- 10 Protective Coatings.- 10.1 Metal Coatings.- 10.2 Conversion Coatings.- 10.3 Organic Coatings and Linings.- 10.4 Glass and Cement Coatings.- Study Problems.- 11 Corrosion Inhibitors.- 11.1 Passivators.- 11.2 Barrier Inhibitors.- 11.3 Poisons.- *11.4 Polarization with Inhibitors.- 11.5 Scavengers.- 11.6 Neutralizers.- Study Problems.- 12 Cathodic and Anodic Protection.- 12.1 Cathodic Protection.- 12.2 Sacrificial Protection.- 12.3 Impressed-Current Cathodic Protection.- 12.4 Anodic Protection.- *12.5 Electrochemical Theory.- Study Problems.- 13 Designing for Corrosion.- 13.1 Allow for Uniform Attack.- 13.2 Minimize Attack Time.- 13.3 Restrict Galvanic Cells.- 13.4 Protect against Environmental Cells.- 13.5 Avoid Corrosive-Mechanical Interaction.- 13.6 Design for Inspection and Maintenance.- Study Problems.- 14 Oxidation: Metal-Gas Reactions.- *14.1 Thermodynamics of Oxidation.- 14.2 Oxide Structure.- 14.3 Kinetics of Oxidation.- 14.4 Oxide Scales.- 14.5 Other Gas-Metal Reactions.- 14.6 Hot Corrosion.- Study Problems.- 15 Oxidation Control.- 15.1 Alloy Theory.- 15.2 High-Temperature Alloys.- 15.3 Coating Requirements.- 15.4 Oxide Coatings.- 15.5 Oxidizable Coatings.- Study Problems.- References.
Human beings undoubtedly became aware of corrosion just after they made their first metals. These people probably began to control corrosion very so on after that by trying to keep metal away from corrosive environments. "Bring your tools in out of the rain" and "Clean the blood off your sword right after battle" would have been early maxims. Now that the mechanisms of corrosion are better understood, more techniques have been developed to control it. My corrosion experience extends over 10 years in industry and research and over 20 years teaching corrosion courses to university engineering students and industrial consulting. During that time I have developed an approach to corrosion that has successfully trained over 1500 engineers. This book treats corrosion and high-temperature oxidation separately. Corrosion is divided into three groups: (1) chemical dissolution including uniform attack, (2) electrochemical corrosion from either metallurgicalor environmental cells, and (3) corrosive-mechanical interactions. It seems more logical to group corrosion according to mechanisms than to arbitrarily separate them into 8 or 20 different types of corrosion as if they were unrelated. University students and industry personnel alike generally are afraid of chemistry and consequently approach corrosion theory very hesitantly. In this text the electrochemical reactions responsible for corrosion are summed up in only five simple half-cell reactions. When these are combined on a polarization diagram, which is explained in detail, the electrochemical pro cesses become obvious.
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