I. Present Status of Artificial Insemination With Donor Semen(AID) and Sperm Banks.- Present Status of AID and Sperm Banks in the United States.- AID and Sperm Banks in Great Britain.- The Organization of the Centers for the Study and Preservation of Semen in France.- Present Status of Donor Insemination in Belgium.- Artificial Insemination and Sperm Banks: The Canadian Experience.- Present Status of Sperm Banks in Switzerland.- Present Status of AID and Sperm Banks in Denmark.- AID and Sperm Bank Development in Israel.- Artificial Insemination and Semen Banks in Italy.- The First Sperm Bank in Spain: Organization and First Year Results.- Human Semen Bank at The Spanish Social Security Hospital.- II. Organization and Management of Sperm Banks.- Organisation of Sperm Banks on a National Basis.- The Use of Minicomputers in Sperm Bank Management.- Establishment of a Central Semen Bank in Denmark Supplying 22 Gynecological Departments.- Sperm Banks and Donor Recruitment in France.- III. Semen Cryopreservation.- Historical Synopsis of Human Semen Cryobanking.- Quantitative Ultrastructural Modifications in Human Spermatozoa after Freezing.- Comparison of Cryoprotection Techniques: A Light and Electron Microscopy Study.- Effect of Cryopreservation on Acrosomal Protein of Human Spermatozoa.- Biochemical Modifications of Frozen Semen.- Effects of Freezing on Spermatozoa Motility.- Semen Freezing in 0.5 and 0.25 ML Straws.- Survival of Human Spermatozoa after Freezing with Different Techniques.- Clinical Use of Human Semen After Long-Term Storage.- Limits of Long Term Semen Cryopreservation.- The Role of Cryobanking in Artificial Insemination.- IV. Artificial Insemination with Donor Semen (AID): Clinical Results.- The Efficacy of Natural Insemination: A Comparative Standard for AID.- Mode of Evaluation of Results in Artificial Insemination.- Results of AID for a First and Succeeding Pregnancies.- Artificial Insemination with Frozen Human Semen: 227 cases.- Results of AID in 865 couples.- Artificial Insemination with Frozen Spermatozoa: Results from 1967 to 1978.- Artificial Insemination with Frozen Donor Semen: Results in 604 Women.- Results of Heterologous Insemination at the University of Berne Gynecology Clinic.- Results of AID with Fresh and Frozen Semen: 488 Cases.- Physical and Mental Development of Children Born Through AID.- Comparison of Results of AID with Fresh and Frozen Semen.- Clinical Comparison of Fresh and Frozen Semen.- V. Artificial Insemination with Donor Semen (AID): Factors Influencing Success.- The Female Factor in AID.- The Male Factor in AID Requests: 558 Cases.- Evaluation of Female Fertility before AID.- Importance of Insemination Timing and Frequency in AID.- The Serial Assessment of Graafian Follicle Growth by Ultrasonic Means for Timing AID.- Echographic Study of Ovulation.- Methods and Results for Regulated Ovulation in Artificial Insemination.- VI. Artificial Insemination with Donor Semen (AID): Genetic Considerations.- Genetic Aspects of Artificial Insemination.- Population Genetics and AID.- Artificial Insemination and Consanguinity.- Chromosome Studies in 1942 Women before Artificial Insemination with Donor Semen.- VII. Artificial Insemination with Donor Semen (AID): Psychological Aspects.- Problems Related to Requests for AID and Psychological Assistance Offered to Couples.- Psycho-Dynamic Discussions with Couples Requesting AID.- Is There a Right to AID?.- Handling of Secrecy by AID Couples.- Difficulties Encountered by Infertile Couples Facing AID.- Modifications of Female Fertility in AID Due to Psychological Factors.- Non-Organic Sexual Disorders as an Indication for AID.- Artificial Insemination and the Genetic Defect Crisis: A Review of Quality Control and Crisis Management.- Evaluation of AID Donors: Medical and Psychological Aspects. A Preliminary Report.- Psychological Aspects of Semen Donation.- Follow-up Study on Children Born Through AID.- Attempt at Follow-up of Children Born Through AID.- VIII. Artificial Insemination with Donor Semen (AID): Social, Legal and Ethical Considerations.- Artificial Insemination: Is There a Movement Towards a European Legislation?.- Legal Aspects of AID.- Legal Status in France of Children Born as a Result of AID.- AID: An Overview of Ethical Issues.- Public Opinion on AID and Sterility.- IX. Artificial Insemination with Husband Semen (AIH) Clinical Results, Semen Improvement and Autopreservation.- Results of AIH in 1475 Patients.- AIH for Semen Insufficiency: 119 Cases.- AIH for Cases of Spermatozoa Antibodies and Oligozoospermia.- Intrauterine Insemination as a Treatment of Immunological Infertility in the Male.- Freeze Preservation of Isolated Populations of Highly Motile Human Spermatozoa.- Motility of Human Spermatozoa after Migration in Bovine Serum Albumin.- Pharmacodynamic Studies on Human Spermatozoa Motility in vitro by Use of Laser Doppler Spectroscopy.- Laboratory Analysis of Split Ejaculates.- Use of Washed Sperm for Removal of Sperm Antibodies.- Fertilization Capacity of Frozen Semen in Autopreservation.- Urological Indications for Sperm Preservation.- Nephrological Indications for Semen Preservation.- Contributors.
Even though artificial insemination is a simple technique that has been practiced for over a century, it has long been carried out under poor conditions due to an inadequate understanding of repro ductive physiology and antagonistic socio-ethical attitudes. Accor dingly, until fairly recently it was a medical act with a limited scientific basis which was practised more or less clandestinely. The development of semen preservation has totally changed the conditions of artificial insemination, especially in regard to flexibility and safeguards in its application. Although the use of fresh semen continues, it is now clear that the future of arti ficial insemination is closely linked to semen preservation. During the past two decades, semen banks have been developed in many countries. This has most often been the result of the initiative of individual physicians in either the private or public sectors. In France, a national system of semen banks (CECOS) was begun in 1973. Although there has been cooperation within this system in the areas of both research and management, a need to com municate and compare experiences with those from other countries was perceived. Thus, the first International Symposium on Artifi cial Insemination and Semen Preservation was planned and held in Paris, France in April 1979. Thirty-seven countries were represented byihdividuals from many concerned disciplines.
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