1 Introduction to HACCP.- References.- 2 HACCP: Definitions and Principles.- References.- 3 Overview of Biological, Chemical, and Physical Hazards.- Biological Hazards.- Bacterial Hazards.- Viral Hazards.- Parasitic Protozoa and Worm Hazards.- Chemical Hazards.- Naturally Occurring Chemicals.- Added Chemicals.- Physical Hazards.- References.- 4 Hazard Analysis and Assignment of Risk Categories.- Overview.- Microbiological Hazard Characteristic Ranking.- Chemical and Physical Hazard Risk Assessment Procedures.- Examples of the Combined Hazard Analysis for Cheese Dip.- References.- 5 Determining Critical Control Points.- Representative CCPs.- Growing.- Ingredient Receiving.- Ingredient Handling.- Processing.- Packaging.- Distribution.- Retail/Foodservice/Home.- Low-acid Canned Foods CCPs.- Growing.- Process and Can Filling.- Thermal Processing.- Can Seam Evaluation.- Summary.- 6 Establishing Critical Limits for Critical Control Points.- Limits: Definitions & Guidelines.- Establishing Limits for Critical Control Points.- Microbiological Limits.- Chemical Limits.- Physical Limits.- Conclusion.- References.- 7 Monitoring Critical Control Point Critical Limits.- What is Monitoring?.- Why Do We Monitor?.- How Do We Monitor?.- Observation.- Measurement.- Where Do We Monitor?.- Who Monitors?.- When Do We Monitor?.- Summary.- References.- 8 Corrective Action Procedures for Deviations from the Critical Control Point Critical Limits.- Corrective Action Activities.- Defining Control.- Adjusting Process to Maintain Control.- Noncompliance Product and Correcting Cause of Deviation.- References.- 9 Effective Recordkeeping System for Documenting the HACCP Plan.- Reasons for Keeping Records.- Types of HACCP Records.- Critical Control Point (CCP) Records.- Records Associated with Establishing Critical Limits.- Records Associated with Deviations.- Records and Verification.- Record Review and Retention.- The HACCP Plan.- Retention of Records.- Regulatory Access.- Summary.- 10 Verification of the HACCP Program.- Importance.- Prevention.- Team Approach.- Essential Elements.- Critical Control Point Verification.- Verification vs. Monitoring.- HACCP Program Verification.- Raw Ingredients.- Receiving and Storage.- Processing.- Processing Equipment.- Cleaning and Sanitizing.- Control Devices.- Packaging Materials.- Finished Product Testing.- Records.- Written Report.- 11 Control Points and Critical Control Points.- Definitions.- Comprehensive Product Control System.- Decision Tree.- Classification of Control Points and Critical Control Points.- Control Point Lists.- Summary.- References.- 12 Putting the Pieces Together: Developing an Action Plan for Implementing HACCP.- Where Does HACCP Fit into a Company?.- Establishing HACCP Accountabilities.- Establishing the HACCP Implementation Project Plan.- Establishing Policy.- Appointment of the Core HACCP Coordinator and Team.- Development of the Product Specific HACCP Plan.- Developing Production Supervisor or Individual Operator Procedures.- Getting the Job Completed.- References.- 13 HACCP System in Regulatory Inspection Programs: Case Studies of the USDA, USDC, and DOD.- USDA-FSIS HACCP Project.- NMFS HACCP Project.- Joint FDA/NOAA Seafood Inspection Program.- HACCP Applications in Food Procurement and Handling for DOD.- Conclusions.- References.- 14 Practical Application of HACCP.- Product Description.- Risk Assessment.- Process Flow Charts.- Critical Control Points and Limits.- Models.- Canned Mushrooms.- Shredded Lettuce.- Frozen French Fries (Crinkle Cut).- Refrigerated Chicken Salad.- Application of HACCP to Foodservice.- Mushrooms.- Shredded Lettuce.- Chicken Salad.- French Fries.- Summary.- References.- A HACCP Principles for Food Production.- C National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System Adopted March 20, 1992.
The Institute of Food Technologists (1FT) sponsors each year a two-day short course that covers a topic of major importance to the food industry. "Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points" was the title for the short course which was held May 31-June 1, 1991, immediately prior to the 51st Annual 1FT Meeting. These short courses have been published as a proceedings in previous years; however, the current and future importance of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system prompted publication of the 1991 short course as a book. This book is designed to serve as a reference on the principles and application of HACCP for those in quality control/assurance, technical man agement, education and related areas who are responsible for food safety man agement. The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF) published in November 1989 a pamphlet titled "HACCP Principles for Food Production" (Appendix A). This document dealt with HACCP as applied to the microbiological safety of foods; however, the principles can be modified to apply to chemical, physical and other hazards in foods. The principles rec ommended by the NACMCF have been widely recognized and adopted by the food industry and regulatory agencies. Implementation of these principles pro vides a proactive, preventive system for managing food safety. HACCP should be applied at all stages of the food system, from production to consumption.
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