1 Retortable plastic packaging.- The origin of retorting as a food process.- Traditional packaging.- Metal cans.- Glass jars.- Advantages and disadvantages.- Thermal processing.- Spoilage organisms.- Factors influencing growth.- Disadvantages of can and jar geometry.- The retort pouch.- Materials.- Pouch fabrication.- Filling, closing, and air evacuation.- Retorting.- Testing requirements.- Economics.- The market for the retort pouch.- The evolution of plastic retortable packages.- The foil laminated tray.- Retortable plastic materials.- Retortable thermoformed plastic containers.- Retortable pressure-formed plastic containers.- Retortable injection blow-moulded plastic containers.- Other candidates.- Summary.- References.- 2 Aseptic packaging.- Heat processing.- Pasteurization.- New trends in retorting.- The basis of sterility calculations.- Product sterilization.- Sterilization of the packaging.- Web sterilization.- Container sterilization.- Some fundamental aspects: reducing the bacterial load.- Maintaining sterile conditions during plant operation.- Presterilization of the packaging machinery.- The production (and protection) of satisfactory seals and closures.- Systems available and possible developments.- References.- 3 Modified atmosphere packaging.- and history.- Reasons for use of modified atmospher packaging.- Technical requirements.- Safety.- Applications.- Vegetables.- Meat packaging.- Poultry packaging.- Fish products.- Bakery products.- Other products.- Packaging materials.- Limitations of MAP.- Testing of modified atmosphere packs.- References and further reading.- 4 Use of irradiation techniques in food packaging.- Historical introduction.- The technology.- Techniques.- Low-dose gamma-irradiation.- Low-dose electron-beam irradiation.- Applications.- Inactivation of pathogens.- Disinfection of cereals and flour products.- Sterilization of packaging materials for the food industries.- Disinfection of herbs and spices.- Extending the life of perishable foods.- Inhibiting sprouting.- Decontamination of soils.- Sterilizing food for prolonged storage.- Legislation.- Standardization.- Effects on packaging.- References.- 5 Shelf-life prediction.- Incentives for shelf-life prediction studies.- Factors in the shelf-life prediction process.- The mechanisms of deterioration.- Water vapour.- Oxidation.- Light.- Volatiles.- Temperature.- Basic shelf-life prediction data.- The moisture absorption isotherm.- Oxygen absorption.- The storage climate.- Values for package permeability.- Water vapour.- Oxygen.- Vapour permeability.- Light transmission.- Shelf-life prediction techniques.- Deterioration by loss or gain of moisture.- Deterioration by oxygen absorption.- Deterioration by a number of causes.- Influence of package imperfections on shelf life.- Multiple package distribution.- In conclusion.- References.- 6 Cartons for liquids.- History and development.- Principles of production.- Converting.- Filling and sealing.- Materials.- Hygiene.- Mechanical strength.- Barrier coatings.- Seals.- Permeability to gases and water vapour.- Material compatibility.- Light.- Aseptic packaging of liquid foods.- Tetra Brik Aseptic.- Packaging material.- Quality control.- Distribution.- Resources and energy.- Marketing aspects and competition.- References.- 7 Packaging of carbonated beverages.- Historical background.- Other developments.- Carbonated beverages and the environment.- Recycling of beverage packages.- Economics.- The impact of legislation.- Volume of beverage packaging systems.- Future trends or wishful thinking?.- References.- 8 Physical distribution today.- Background and definitions.- The structure of physical distribution and the importance of packaging.- New aspects of physical distribution.- Costs of distribution.- References.- 9 Packaging for consumer convenience.- Non-packaged foods.- Changing social and economic climate.- Lifestyles and food orientation.- Recent developments.- New plastic materials.- Nutritional supplement in Tetra Brik Aseptic.- School milk programmes.- Opening and reclosing function.- Let Pak.- Cekacan.- Microwave cooking.- Microglas.- Future developments.
The progress that has been made over the last decade in the preparation, development, processing, and marketing of food has to a large extent been made possible by innovations and developments in the ways that thermo plastics, in conjunction with paper, metal foils, adhesives and other materials, have been combined and formed into the appropriate configurations to provide the properties required. Much has been said, written and published about retort pouches, modified atmosphere packaging and aseptic preservation processes, and even more about the newer methods of distribution and retailing of all kinds of food. However, all of this material needed to be digested, condensed into a logical framework and appraised, and possible further developments considered. In many instances, the original research and development was carried out in conjunction with one or more of the research organisations in membership with IAPRI, the International Association of Packaging Research Institutes, and it was felt that a book which attempted to provide a review of the more important developments would be useful to practitioner and student alike.
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