I. Distribution and Elimination of Ethanol.- 1 Factors Affecting the Distribution and Measurement of Ethanol in the Body.- A. Introduction.- B. Comparative Blood Ethanol Levels in Animals and Man.- C. Distribution of Ethanol in Body Tissues.- D. Methods of Ethanol Determination.- E. Alteration of Blood Ethanol Concentration: Summary.- F. Conclusions.- G. References.- 2 Chronopharmacokinetics of Ethanol.- A. Introduction.- B. Elimination Kinetics of Ethanol.- C. Chronopharmacology of Ethanol.- D. Theoretical Chronopharmacokinetics of Ethanol.- E. Conclusions and Implications.- F. References.- II. Enzymology and Metabolism of Ethanol.- 3 Metalloenzymes and Ethanol Metabolism: Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase.- A. Introduction.- B. Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase-A Zinc Metalloenzyme.- C. Human Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase.- D. Summary and Conclusions.- E. References.- 4 Enzymatic Pathways of Ethanol Metabolism.- A. Introduction.- B. Alcohol Dehydrogenase.- C. Catalase.- D. Microsomal Ethanol-Oxidizing System.- E. Summary and Conclusions.- F. References.- 5 Nonethanol Substrates of Alcohol Dehydrogenase.- A. Introduction.- B. Kinetic Mechanism of ADH.- C. Primary Alcohols.- D. Aldehyde Reduction.- E. Secondary Alcohols and Ketones.- F. Steroids.- G. Effect of the Substrate Structure on the Rate of Ternary Complex Interconversion.- H. Substrate Structure and Substrate Inhibition.- I. Diamond Lattice Section Models of Substrate-Binding Area of the Active Site.- J. Biological Occurrence of ADH Substrates and Physiological Role of ADH.- K. Conclusions.- L. References.- 6 Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: Mechanism of Action and Possible Physiological Roles.- A. Introduction.- B. The Reaction.- C. The Enzyme.- D. Inhibitors of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase.- E. High- and Low-Km Forms of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase.- F. Substrates for Aldehyde Dehydrogenase.- G. Induction of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase by Ethanol.- H. Summary and Conclusions.- I. References.- 7 Acetaldehyde Metabolism.- A. Introduction.- B. Levels of Acetaldehyde in the Body after Ingestion of Ethanol.- C. Rate of Acetaldehyde Metabolism in Various Organs.- D. Enzyme Responsible for the Oxidation of Acetaldehyde and Its Subcellular Localization.- E. Regulation of Acetaldehyde Metabolism.- F. Summary and Conclusions.- G. References.- 8 Methanol: Its Metabolism and Toxicity.- A. Introduction.- B. Methanol Oxidation.- C. Formaldehyde Metabolism.- D. Formate Metabolism.- E. Basis of the Toxicity of Methanol.- F. Treatment of Methanol Poisoning.- G. Summary and Conclusions.- H. References.- III. Effects of Ethanol on Intermediary Metabolism.- 9 Ethanol Metabolism in Perfused Liver and Isolated Hepatocytes with Associated Methodologies.- A. Introduction.- B. Methodology for the Study of Hepatic Ethanol Metabolism.- C. Advantages and Limitations of the Methods.- D. Comparative Rates of Ethanol Utilization.- E. Factors Controlling the Rate of Hepatic Ethanol Metabolism.- F. Summary and Conclusions.- G. References.- 10 Effect of Acute and Chronic Administration of Ethanol on the Redox States of Brain and Liver.- A. Introduction.- B. Basic Aspects of the Redox State.- C. Measurement of the Redox State.- D. Effect of Acute Ethanol Administration on the Liver Redox State.- E. Effect of Chronic Ethanol Administration on the Liver Redox State.- F. Effect of Acute and Chronic Ethanol Administration on the Brain Redox State.- G. Summary and Conclusions.- H. Appendix: List of Symbols and Abbreviations.- I. References.- 11 Control of Ethanol Oxidation and Its Interaction with Other Metabolic Systems.- A. Introduction.- B. Basic Theoretical Aspects of Metabolic Control.- C. Control of Alcohol Dehydrogenase: Properties of the Purified Enzymes.- D. Control of Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Vivo and in Perfused Liver and Hepatocyte Systems.- E. Generation and Control of the Redox State and Acetaldehyde Levels.- F. Determination of Rate-Limiting Reactions: The Use of Inhibitors.- G. Summary and Conclusions.- H. References.-
Alcohol abuse and alcoholism represents one of the major health, social, and economic issues facing not only America but much of the world. Problems with alcohol appear to be a common curse, afflicting almost all industrialized nations as well as the developing countries. In the United States today at least 10 million people suffer the misuse. It is estimated that 205,000 individuals die prematurely each year from a variety of ethanol-induced factors, including cirrhosis, cancer, heart disease, suicide, homi cide, and highway fatalities and other accidents. In purely economic terms, the alcohol-related cost to our society in 1975 is estimated at nearly $43 billion in lost production, medical expenses, motor vehicle accidents, fire losses, and the maintenance of social mechanisms to deal with these problems. But the economic impact pales in comparision with the psychological pain and anguish brought to alcoholics and their family and friends. The disease of alcoholism bears a close relation to the topic of our dedication, for it is equally insidious and sadistic, it destroys humanity and rational thought, and it brings terror, pain, and death.
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