Microelectronics packaging and interconnection have experienced exciting growth stimulated by the recognition that systems, not just silicon, provide the solution to evolving applications. In order to have a high density/ performance/yield/quality/reliability, low cost, and light weight system, a more precise understanding of the system behavior is required. Mechanical and thermal phenomena are among the least understood and most complex of the many phenomena encountered in microelectronics packaging systems and are found on the critical path of neatly every design and process in the electronics industry. The last decade has witnessed an explosive growth in the research and development efforts devoted to determining the mechanical and thermal behaviors of microelectronics packaging. With the advance of very large scale integration technologies, thousands to tens of thousands of devices can be fabricated on a silicon chip. At the same time, demands to further reduce packaging signal delay and increase packaging density between communicat ing circuits have led to the use of very high power dissipation single-chip modules and multi-chip modules. The result of these developments has been a rapid growth in module level heat flux within the personal, workstation, midrange, mainframe, and super computers. Thus, thermal (temperature, stress, and strain) management is vital for microelectronics packaging designs and analyses. How to determine the temperature distribution in the elec tronics components and systems is outside the scope of this book, which focuses on the determination of stress and strain distributions in the electronics packaging.
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