Keynote Papers.- Genetic Engineering.- The Photosynthetic Apparatus.- Session I. Production and Extraction of Microbial Enzymes.- Increasing the Production of Enzymes Via Fermentation.- Cultural Conditions for the Microbial Production of ?-Tyrosinase and Tryptophanase.- Batch Culture Experiments in the Optimization of Continuous Fermentation of an Intracellular Enzyme.- Properties of Heat Stable Enzymes of Extreme Thermophiles.- Aqueous Two-Phase Systems for the Large-Scale Purification of Enzymes.- Contributed Papers: Procedure for the Simultaneous Large-Scale Isolation of Pullulanase and 1,4-?-Glucan Phosphorylase Involving Liquid-Liquid Separations.- Purification and Immobilization of a Fungal ?-Galactosidase (Lactase).- A Xylanase from Schizophyllum commune.- Session II. Industrial Applications of Enzymes: Engineering Aspects.- Immobilized Lactase for Whey Hydrolysis: Stability and Operating Strategy.- Reaction Engineering Aspects of Continuous Operation with Biocatalysts.- Economical Aspects of Continuous Operation with Biocatalysis.- Contributed Papers: Pressure Drop Across Compressible Beds.- Heterogeneous Kinetics of Two-Substrate Enzymic Reactions Under Diffusional Limitations.- Membrane Reactor-Separator for Continuous Enzymatic Regeneration of ATP.- Immobilized Glucose-Oxidase/Catalase: Deactivation in a Differential Reactor.- Effect of Design Parameter on the Performance of Immobilized Glucose Isomerase Reactor System.- Immobilization of Acetate Kinase on Functionalized Solid-Core Polymeric Beads.- Session III. Study of Modified, Stabilized, and Immobilized Enzymes.- Surface Modification of Proteins.- Staphylococcal Nuclease Immobilized on Agarose Gel.- Enzyme Collagen Membranes in Reactors and for Analytical Purposes.- Contributed Papers: Analysis of the Reaction Kinetics of Single Esterase-Sepharose Beads by Microfluorometry.- A New Kinetic Method for Analyzing the Parameters of Immobilized Aldolase.- Interaction of Enzymes with Synthetic Polymers.- Proteolysis of Immobilized Lactate Dehydronase in the Presence of Pyruvate and NADH.- Synthesis and Kinetic Properties of a New NAD+ Derivative Carrying a Vinyl Group.- Isocyanide Derivatives of Polysaccharides as Supports for Enzyme Immobilization.- Enzymes on Magnetic Supports.- Oxirane-Acrylic Beads, Preparation 2878-C.- Immobilization of 3?-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Isolated from Streptomyces griseocarneus.- A Method to Prepare Bead-Shaped Immobilized Enzyme.- Immobilization of Hydrogenase from Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16 on Glass Beads.- Hemisynthesis of Aminoglycosides.- Session IV. New Medical Applications for Enzymes.- Enzyme-Polyethylene Glycol Adducts: Modified Enzymes with Unique Properties.- Carrier-Bound Detoxifying Enzymes for an Extracorporeal Detoxification of Endogenous and Exogenous Toxins.- Biomedical Applications of Enzymatic Fibres.- Liposomes as Carriers of Proteins: Possible Medical Applications.- Galactose Conversion Using a Microcapsule Immobilized Multienzyme Cofactor Recycling System.- Hollow Fiber-Entrapped Liver Microsomes: A Potential Extracorporeal Drug Detoxifier.- Contributed Papers: Enzymatic Conversion of Cyclohexane to Cyclohexanol by Isolated Rat Liver Microsomes (MS).- Hydrolysis of Glucuronides with Immobilized Enzymes.- Immobilization of Neuramïnidase for the Treatment of Tumor Cells.- Enzyme Thermistor Analysis in Clinical Chemistry and Environmental and Process Control.- Nylon Tube Bound Enzymes in Systems for the Determination of Substrates in Serum and Urine by Electrochemical and Calorimetric Detectors.- Analytical Application of Collagen Enzymatic Membranes for a Glucose Sensor.- Immobilization of Enzyme on PMG and its Application to the Urea Monitoring Apparatus.- Session V. Industrial Applications for Enzymes: State of the Art.- Industrial Applications of Immobilized Enzymes: State of the Art.- Regeneration of ATP by Immobilized Microbial Cells and its Utilization for the Synthesis of Nucleotides.- Production of 6APA in the Penicillin G Fermentation Plant by Using Fiber-Entrapped Penicillin Amidase.- Enzymatic Deacetylation of Cephalosporins.- Enzymatic Production of Sugars from Hemicellulose.- Enzymes and Separation Processes.- Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Protein Ultrafiltration for Converting Acid Whey to Valuable Products.- Contributed Papers: Model Proteolysis of ?-Casein with Immobilized Trypsin and its Technological Significance.- Detoxification of Organophosphate Pesticides Using Immobilized Enzymes.- Production of L-Tryptophan.- Electrochemical Assay of Oxidoreductase Enzymes.- Design Considerations and Operational Strategies of a Commercial Glucose Isomerase Reactor System.- Session VI. Multienzyme Systems, Immobilized Whole Cells, and Organelles.- Enzyme Sequences in the Living Cell.- Immobilization of Enzymes, Microbial Cells, and Organelles by Inclusion with PhotoCrosslinkable Resins.- Immobilized Cell Systems.- Steroid Conversion Using Immobilized hiving Microorganisms.- Microbial Cells Immobilized and Living on Solid Supports and Their Application to Fermentation Processes.- Microbial Electrode: BOD Sensor.- Contributed Papers: New Method for Immobilization of Microbial Cells and its Industrial Application.- Polymer Entrapment of Microbial Cells: Preparation and Reactivity of Catalytic Systems.- Benzene Metabolism by Bacterial Cells Immobilized in Polyacrylamide Gel.- Cellulose Bead Entrapped Whole Cell Glucose Isomerase in Fructose Syrup Production.- Properties of a Cell-Bound Glucose Isomerase.- Session VII. Fundamentals of Solid Phase Biochemistry.- Hydrophobic Interactions in Purification and Utilization of Enzymes.- Relative Importance of Diffusion Layer Resistance and Microenvironmental Effects on the Effectiveness of Immobilized Enzyme Reactors.- Studies of Hemoglobin and Allosteric Enzymes Under Artificial Conformational Constraints.- Determination of Michaelis Menten Parameters for Immobilized Enzymes: Detection and Measurement of Diffusion.- Studies with Immobilized Toxins.- Contributed Papers: Immobilized Protein Modification Reagents.- On the Mechanism of Protein Cross-Linking with Glutaraldehyde.- Synthesis of Water Soluble Polymers with Covalently Bound General Ligands.- Soluble NAD+-Derivatives of High Molecular Weight in Enzymic Recycling Systems.- The Use of Enzymes for Design of Light Sensitive Silverless Materials: Photoenzography.- Continuous Measurements on Immobilized Cells by a Mass Filter.- Enzyme Activity at a Gas Solid Interphase: Oxidation of Methanol to Formaldehyde.- Some Reactive Carriers and Immobilized Enzymes.- Immobilization of Proteins on Polyhydrazides.- Studies of Insoluble Organic/Inorganic Composits of Glucose Isomerase.- Session VIII. Application of Affinity Methods and New Purification Procedures.- Pressure-driven Affinity Sorption of Trypsin Inhibitors.- Measurement of ATP and Ligand-ATP Conjugates by Enzymic Cycling with Co-immobilized Hexokinase and Pyruvate Kinase.- Affinity Therapy.- Contributed Papers: Principles of Multi-Enzyme Purification by Affinity Chromatography.- Affinity Chromatography of Proteolytic Enzymes.- Guanosine Nucleotide Analogues as General Ligands in Affinity Chromatography.- Physical-Chemical Factors Influencing the Resolution in Affinity Chromatography.- Use of Affinity Chromatography for Determination of Dissociation Constants of Complexes of Trypsin and Chymotrypsin with their Free and Immobilized Inhibitors.- Purification of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase by Affinity Chromatography.- Studies on the Purification of Aspergillus niger Endopolygalacturonase by Agarose Gel Chromatography.- Affinity Chromatography: Recent Advances.- Guidelines for the Characterization of Immobilized Enzymes: A Proposal.- List of Participants.
The unique catalytic properties of enzymes and the numerous techniques for immobilization of enzymes and cells continue to maintain a high degree of practical and scientific interest in this area called Enzyme Engineering. This fourth International Enzyme Engineering Confer ence was the first to be held outside of the United States. Europe was chosen as the site primarily to en able greater participation by investigators from that continent. The Engineering Foundation of New York, which was the principal sponsor of the first three conferences, was most fortunate in having the DECHEMA (Deutsche Gesell schaft fur chemisches Apparatewesen e. V.) of Frankfurt (Main), F. R. Germany as the cosponsor for this fourth conference. The success of the conference also was due in large part to the generous financial support, especially by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany, as well as by European enzyme and chemical companies. The fourth conference, held September 25-30, 1977 at Bad Neuenahr, Federal Republic of Germany was certainly successful, with 240 participants from 23 countries, repre senting many academic disciplines and occupational special ties. At this conference special emphasis was placed on the immobilization of whole cells and organelles, medical applications of immobilized enzymes and organelles, and the industrial status and future for immobilized biological materials.
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