The 1970s and 1980s have been marked by turbulent times for certain portions of America's industrial base, as their dominance of many do mestic and foreign markets has eroded. During such times of stress it is tempting to create scapegoats in order to rationalize shortcomings. Much is heard about the Japanese in this regard. How they have contributed to the deterioration of specific segments of American indus try, how jobs in the U. S. are being lost to foreign competition, and how the resulting trade deficit will be the downfall of us all. Much of this rhetoric has been directed against the Japanese automobile manu facturers and the Japanese electronic industry, which has been accused of "dumping" product into the United States. It was not until Japan unveiled its plan to build the multi-billion dollar Kansai Airport project that Japanese restrictive bidding practices in their domestic construction market became headline news. Construc tion then became a popular subject for "Japan Bashing" and attention was focused on the activities of Japanese contractors around the world, and, more particularly, on their involvement in the U. S. construction market. Well, the Japanese construction companies are in the United States and have been for some time. They have been awarded many contracts for federal and municipal construction projects and they have negotiated a significant number of construction contracts in the private sector.
1. The Japanese Presence in the United States Today.- Why Are They Here and What Are They Doing?.- Reluctance to Go It Alone.- Differing Approaches by Other Japanese Companies.- The Other Japanese Real Estate Investors.- A Changing Philosophy?.- Investments in the Residential Market.- The Investment Houses and Banks.- Total Japanese Investments in the U.S..- U.S. Construction Subsidiaries.- The Japanese Approach.- The Trading Companies.- Putting Things in Perspective.- 2. The Construction Industry in Japan.- A Look at the Country.- The History of Construction in Japan.- Public versus Private Projects.- Tunnel Work.- Urban Development.- Other Government Roles That Affect Construction.- Hi-Tech and Industrial Park Development.- The Industrial Relocation Promotion Law.- Technopolis.- The Third Sector Approach.- Hotel Construction in Japan.- Housing in Japan.- Variation of the Two Family House Theme.- Land Costs.- Kami Megura.- Land Fever.- Profiling the Japanese Construction Company.- Profits-Japanese Versus American.- The Banking Connection.- The Ministry of Construction.- Laws Relating to Construction in Japan.- The Licensing System for Japanese Contractors.- The Training of Construction Workers.- Conclusions.- 3. The Functioning Construction Company.- The Japanese Corporate Environment.- Differences in Corporate Environment-Physical and Philosophical.- Lifetime Employment.- The Japanese Executive.- Executive Salaries and Amenities.- The Corporate Chain of Command.- Corporate Organizational Structure.- A Close Look at Ohbayashi Corporation.- What Is It Like to Work for a Company Like Ohbayashi?.- Kajima-A $7.6 Billion Giant.- Government Benefits and the Construction Company Employee.- The Role of the Subcontractor in the Construction Process.- Nihon Johnson Control.- Corporate Planning in the Construction Industry.- 4. Marketing-Domestically and Overseas.- Research and Development as a Marketing Tool.- Joint Ventures-A Valuable Marketing Concept.- The Marketing Link Between Government and Industry.- The Asahan Project-A Classic Case of Creating a Project.- The Overseas Construction Association of Japan.- The Japanese and the European Market.- Was the U.S. Market Simply a Laboratory?.- Japanese Contractors on the European Scene.- Japanese Investments in EC Countries.- The Battle of Britain.- Kumagai Gumi and the Financial Approach.- Kajima Corporation and Its Special Marketing Tool.- How Long Term Client Relationships Become Marketing Tools.- 5. Estimating, Bidding, Cost and Quality Control.- The Estimating Process.- A Case Study of an Excavation Estimate.- The Role of the Project Manager in the Estimating Process.- Estimating Department Personnel.- An Unusual Estimating Tool-The Tower Crane.- Cost Information Manuals.- Cost Reporting.- Bidding Projects in Japan.- The U.S. Postal Service and its Selected Bidders List Program.- Simplification of the Selected Bidders List Program.- The Qualified Bidder's Application.- Low Bid Is Not Always the Successful Bid.- The Tokyo Municipal Government.- TMG and Design Consultant Selection.- Quality Control-A Driving Force in the Construction Industry.- 6. The Contract Documents.- The Japanese Concept of Contracts.- History of Japanese Contractual Agreements.- Japan's Legal System.- The Role of Personal Relationships in Agreements.- The Lawyer in Japan.- The Construction Contract Perception.- The Concept of Change Orders.- The Construction Contract.- Settling Disputes in Japan.- 7. The Construction Process.- The Japanese Construction Employee.- Managerial and Professional Staff Salaries.- Safety and Construction.- The Unsafe Workplace.- Safety on the Job Site.- Ohbayashi's Safety Schedule.- Construction Safety Off the Site.- Night Time Safety Practices.- Construction Equipment Safety.- The Field Organization on the Construction Site.- A Day on the Jobsite with Ohbayashi.- A Day on a Mitsui Bridge Project.- 8. Unionism in Japan and the Construction Unions.- The History of Unions in Japan.-
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