Overview Section.- Recent studies on the biochemistry and chemistry of nitrogenases.- Nodulation genetics: the plant-bacterial interface.- Physiological, metabolic and developmental implications of O2 regulation in legume nodules.- Regulation of nitrogen fixation and assimilation genes in the free-living versus symbiotic state.- Evolution, structure and function of nitrogen-fixing root nodules: confessions of ignorance.- Nitrogen cycling and human intervention.- H2 cycling in N2 fixation: past, present and future outlook.- Section A: Nitrogenase Biochemistry and Chemical Models.- Analysis of Azotobacter vinelandii strains containing defined deletions in nif genes required for FeMo-co biosynthesis.- In vitro synthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor and its analogs: requirement of a non-nif gene product for the synthesis, and altered properties of dinitrogenase.- Identification of FeMoco domains within the nitrogenase MoFe protein.- Kinetics and mechanisms of ATP hydrolysis, electron transfers and proton release by Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenase.- Crystal structure of the nitrogenase iron protein from Azotobacter vinelandii.- Structure of the nitrogenase MoFe protein: spatial distribution of the intrinsic metal atoms determined by x-ray anomalous scattering.- Vanadium nitrogenase of Azotobacter.- Possible structural analogs for the Fe/M/S sites in the nitrogenases. The[Fe6S6(L)6(M(CO)3)2]n- clusters and the [(MFe3S4)2(?2-S)(?2-L)]n- singly- and doubly-bridged double cubanes.- Workshop summary: How is the MoFe protein organized to fix nitrogen?.- Poster Summaries.- Section B: Plant-Microbe Interactions.- Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes specify the production of an alfalfa-specific sulfated lipo-oligosaccharide signal.- Surface interactions between rhizobia and legume root hairs.- Isolation, characterization, and structural elucidation of a "nod signal" excreted by Rhizobium trifolii ANU843 which induces root hair branching and nodule-like primordia in axenic white clover seedlings.- Recent studies on the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis.- The Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae NodO protein compensates for the exported signal made by the host-specific nodulation genes.- Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes and their regulation.- Regulatory steps in nodulation by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.- Nutrient exchange across the peribacteroid membrane of isolated symbiosomes.- Immunological dissection of the plant-microbe interface in pea nodules.- Endosymbiosis of Rhizobium: Internalization of the "extracellular compartment" and metabolites exchange.- Compilation of the nod, fix, and nif genes of Rhizobia and information concerning their function.- Poster Summaries.- Section C: Limiting Factors in Nitrogen Fixation.- Limiting factors in symbiotic nitrogen fixation: structure and dynamics of the Rhizobium genome.- Oxygen diffusion in the legume root nodule.- A genetic approach to analyze the critical role of oxygen in bacteroid metabolism.- Molecular analysis of terminal oxidases in electron transport pathways of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Azotobacter vinelandii.- Metabolism of C4-dicarboxylates and amino acids in soybean nodule bacteroids, and their role in energy supply to nitrogenase.- Measurement of N2 fixation by 15N natural abundance in the management of legume crops: roles and precautions.- Genetic analysis of sym genes and other nodule-related genes in Pisum sativum.- Host legume control of nodulation by flavonoids.- Poster Summaries.- Section D: Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment.- Ecological aspects of nitrogen fixation.- The ecology of indigenous populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum bvs. trifolii and viceae.- Molecular analysis of the denitrification system of pseudomonads.- Production of nitrite and N2O by the ammonia-oxidizing nitrifiers.- Planned release of genetically modified organisms: scientific and regulatory issues.- Field release of genetically-engineered Rhizobium meliloti and Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains.- Assessment of genetically engineered microorganisms under the Toxic Substances Control Act: considerations prior to small-scale release.- Poster Summaries.- Section E: Bacterial Systems.- Regulation of the C4-dicarboxylate transport in free-living and symbiotic Rhizobium meliloti.- Transcriptional activation of nitrogen fixation genes in Klebsiella pneumonia.- Mechanism of transcription from nif promoters: involvement of IHF.- Organization and regulation of nitrogen fixation genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus.- The genetics and biochemistry of the reversible ADP-ribosylation systems of Rhodospirillum rubrum and Azospirillum lipoferum.- Nitrogen fixation genes of Clostridium pasteurianum.- Azospirillum associations.- Nitrogen fixation in filamentous cyanobacteria.- Hydrogen metabolism and the alternative nitrogenase in the cyanbacterium Anabaena variabilis.- Poster Summaries.- Section F: Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry.- to nitrogen fixation in agriculture and industry: contribution of BNF to sustainability of agriculture.- Improvement of inoculant efficiency by strain improvement and formulation manipulations.- Agronomic and economic benefits of nitrogen contributed by legumes in live-mulch and alley cropping systems.- Stem-nodule symbiosis and its unusual properties.- Workshop summary: What are the applications of our research to ecology and agriculture worldwide?.- Poster Summaries.- Section G: Plant Function.- Protein synthesis and protein phosphorylation in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids.- Some nodulin and Nod proteins show similarity to specific animal proteins.- Alfalfa root nodule aspartate aminotransferase (AAT): Biochemical importance and genetic control.- Regulation of host gene expression during nodule development in soybeans.- Nodulins and nodule development.- Regulation of expression of the GLN-? gene of Phaseolus vulgaris L.- The glutamine synthetases of Rhizobium leguminosarum and their regulatory genes.- Workshop summary: How can we couple the genetics and physiology of nodule function?.- Poster Summaries.- Section H: Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.- Evolving a Rhizobium for non-legume nodulation.- Hypotheses for the evolution of actinorhizal symbioses.- Genetics of alternative nitrogen fixation systems in Azotobacter vinelandii.- Nitrogen fixation in Methanosarcina barkeri strain 227.- The first photosynthetic N2-fixing Rhizobium: Characteristics.- Nodulation of non-legumes by rhizobia.- Poster Summaries.- Section I: Summing up the Congress.- Congress summary: the molecular perspective.- Congress summary: the organismal perspective.- Computer networking and biological nitrogen fixation.- Author Index.
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