1 Introduction.- 1.1 Need for inspection; 1.2 Types of inspection system; 1.3 Quality of inspection; 1.4 Reliability of defect detection; 1.5 Benefits of nondestructive test examination.- 2 Liquid Penetrant Inspection.- 2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Principles of penetrant inspection; 2.3 Characteristics of a penetrant; 2.4 Water-washable system; 2.5 Post-emulsification system; 2.6 Solvent-removable system; 2.7 Surface preparation and cleaning; 2.8 Penetrant application; 2.9 Development; 2.10 Advantages and limitations; 2.11 Range of applications..- 3 Magnetic Particle Inspection.- 3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Magnetisation; 3.3 Magnetisation methods; 3.4 Continuous and residual methods; 3.5 Sensitivities; 3.6 Demagnetisation; 3.7 Magnetic particles; 3.8 Applications; 3.9 Advantages and limitations of magnetic particle inspection.- 4 Electrical Test Methods (Eddy Current Testing).- 4.1 Introduction; 4.2 Principles of eddy current inspection; 4.3 Conductivity of a material; 4.4 Magnetic properties; 4.5 Coil impedance; 4.6 Lift-off factor and edge effects; 4.7 Skin effect; 4.8 Inspection frequency; 4.9 Coil arrangements; 4.10 Inspection probes; 4.11 Types of circuit; 4.12 Reference pieces; 4.13 Phase analysis; 4.14 Display methods; 4.15 Typical applications of eddy current techniques.- 5 Ultrasonic Testing.- 5.1 Introduction; 5.2 Nature of sound; 5.3 Wave velocity; 5.4 Wavelength; 5.5 Generation of ultrasound; 5.6 Characteristics of an ultrasonic beam; 5.7 Sound waves at interfaces; 5.8 Sound attenuation; 5.9 Display systems; 5.10 Probe construction; 5.11 Type of display; 5.12 Inspection techniques; 5.13 Identification of defects; 5.14 Immersion testing; 5.15 Sensitivity and calibration; 5.16 Reference standards; 5.17 Surface condition; 5.18 Some applications of ultrasonic testing.- 6 Radiography.- 6.1 Introduction; 6.2 Uses of radiography; 6.3 Some limitations of radiography; 6.4 Principles of radiography; 6.5 Radiation sources; 6.6 Production of X-rays; 6.7 X-ray spectra; 6.8 ?-radiation sources; 6.9 Attenuation of radiation; 6.10 Radiographic equivalence; 6.11 Shadow formation, enlargement and distortion; 6.12 Radiographic film and paper; 6.13 Xeroradiography; 6.14 Fluoroscopy; 6.15 Exposure factors; 6.16 Radiographic screens; 6.17 Identification markers and Image Quality Indicators; 6.18 Inspection of simple shapes; 6.19 Inspection of complex shapes; 6.20 Viewing and interpretation of radiographs; 6.21 The radiation hazard; 6.22 Protection against radiation; 6.23 Measurement of radiation received by personnel.- 7 Other Non-destructive Inspection Techniques.- 7.1 Optical inspection probes; 7.2 Neutron radiography; 7.3 Laser-induced ultrasonics; 7.4 Time-of-flight diffractions; 7.5 Acoustic emission inspection; 7.6 Crack depth gauges; 7.7 Thermography; 7.8 Surface texture analysis; 7.9 Multi-phase flow analysis; 7.10 Conclusions.
It is of great importance that both individual components and complete engineer ing assemblies and structures are free from damaging defects and other possible causes of premature failure. A whole series of inspection instruments and tech niques has been evolved over the years and new methods are still being developed to assist in the process of assessing the integrity and reliability of parts and assemblies. Non-destructive testing and evaluation methods are widely used in industry for checking the quality of production, and also as part of routine inspec tion and maintenance in service. Despite the obvious importance of the subject, and the fact that most of the inspection methods are based on well-established scientific principles, there is a dearth of publications suitable for use as texts in our universities and colleges. The whole area of non-destructive testing receives scant attention in many engineering degree and diploma courses in the UK and this may be a consequence of a shortage of student texts. The authors, in producing this basic text, hope that it will prove useful to students on engineering courses and, possibly, act as a stimulus for the more widespread introduction of the subject into curricula.
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