of Part A.- Section 1 Morphology and Surface Properties of Macrophages.- The RES and the Mononuclear Phagocyte System.- Structure and Function.- Relative Usefulness of the Terms RES and MPS.- References.- Morphology and Kinetics of Lymphocytes.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Differences Between Monocyte-Derived and Tissue Macrophages.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- References.- Cellular Basis for the Generation of B-Cell Diversity.- Distribution of T and B cells in Chickens.- The Thymus System.- The Bursal System.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Antigenic Differences Between Rat Alveolar and Peritoneal Macrophages.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- Acknowledgements.- References.- A Macrophage Cell Surface Antigen.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Section 2 Ontogeny and Development of RE Cells.- Origin, Ontogeny and Kinetics of Mononuclear Phagocytes.- Origin.- Ontogeny.- Kinetics.- Regulation.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Germinal Centers and Their Role in Immune Responses.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Distribution of HL-A Antigens and ABO Blood Groups in Pre-Columbian Mummies.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- References.- Immunological Reconstitution of Neonatally Thymectomized Rats Following Implantation of Thymic Epithelial Cells.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- References.- Section 3 Biochemistry and Physiology of the RES.- Biochemical Aspects of the Function of the Reticulo-Endothelial System.- Metabolism During Phagocytosis.- Ecto-Enzymes.- References.- Cyclic Nucleotide Metabolism of Reticuloendothelial Cells.- References.- Nitroblue Tetrazolium Reduction by Human Macrophages: Studies in Chronic Granulomatous Disease.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- Acknowledgements.- References.- The NADPH Oxidase Activity of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophilic Leukocytes Revisited.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- References.- Chemotaxis of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophilic Leukocytes by Mannan-Enriched Preparations of Candida albicans.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- References.- Iron and the Reticuloendothelial System.- Initial Diagnostic Tests.- Ferrokinetics.- Results of Ferrokinetic Studies.- Pathophysiology.- Therapy.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Section 4 The Phagocytic Event.- Chlorination, Decarboxylation and Bactericical Activity Mediated by the MPO-H2O2-Cl- System.- The MPO-H2O2-Halide Antimicrobial System.- Characteristics of MPO-H2O2 Cl-Reaction.- New Information and Physiological Activity.- Acknowledgements.- References.- The Mechanism of Control of Phagocytic Metabolism.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Genetic Regulation of Macrophage Functions.- Genetic Control of Phagocytic Activity.- Genetic Control of Antigen Handling.- References.- Electron Microscopic Cytochemical Localization of Intravenously Injected Liposome-Encapsulated Horseradish Peroxidase in Rat Liver Cells.- Material and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Phagocytosis and Intralysosomal Digestion of Subcellular Organelles by Kupffer Cells of Rat Liver.- Materials and Methods.- Results and Discussion.- Acknowledgements.- References.- The Role of Phagocytosis in the Production of Endogenous Pyrogen by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Antiphagocytic Activity of the Cell Wall Polysaccharide of Escherichia coli.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- References.- The Reticuloendothelial System (RES) in Experimental Amebic Meningoencephalitis.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Section 5 Factors Affecting RE Function.- The Selection and Design of Lysosomotropic Drugs.- Background and Nomenclature.- Physiologic Pathways to Vacuoles of Target Cells.- Selection and Design of Lysosomotropic Drugs.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Surface Receptors in B Lymphocyte Activation by Antigens.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation: Effect of Ligand Concentration and Induction Time.- Material and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Complement Independent Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Induced Hypotension and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: A Correlation of LPS Structure with In vivo and In vitro Biological Activities.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Potentiated Lysosomal Enzyme, Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal Activities of Peritoneal Macrophages of Mice Treated with the MER Fraction of Tubercle Bacilli.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Adjuvant Effect of Listeria Cell Wall Fraction.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- Acknowledgements.- References.- The Present View of RES and Shock.- RES Functions of Importance.- RES and Trauma Resistance.- RES Function in the Severely Injured.- Mechanism of the Post Traumatic RES Depression.- Clinical Implications.- Conclusions.- References.- Trauma Induced Histamine Synthesis and RES Activity.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- References.- Workshops.- RES - Biochemistry and Physiology.- RES Pharmacology.- Opening Remarks: The Last Tango in Pamplona.- Pharmacology of the Reticuloendothelial System Accent on Glucan.- References.- Zymosan, Glucan, Glucan Esters and Tilorone.- References.- Levamisole, an Anti-Anergic Chemotherapeutic Agent: Experimental and Clinical Findings.- References.- Clinical Experiences with Levamisole.- References.- Environmental Factors Affecting the RES.- Reticuloendothelial Blockade with Rare Earth Metals, the Role of Reticuloendothelial Activity in Hepatopathies and Intravascular Coagulation.- References.- Nutrition and Carcinogenesis.- Nutrients Modifying Chemical Carcinogenesis.- References.- From Concept to Clinical Trial: Search for a Host Defense System Stimulant.- From Sharks to Coenzyme Q10.- Two Macrophage-Affecting Agents (MER and AMS).- References.- Stimulation and Depression of RES Phagocytosis by Pharmacological Agents.- The Exploration of the Liver-Spleen Functionality Relation from the Animal to the Human.- Immunological Effects of Abused Drugs: Halothane, Promethazine and Oxisuran in Man.- References.- Drugs of Abuse: Effects on Immunity.- References.- Aspects of the Immunological Involvement in General Anesthesia: Transvascular Diapedesis, Circulatory Leukocytes and Phagocytosis.- References.- RES Depression by Promethazine Used in Pregnancy.- Oxisuran: A Non-Cytotoxic, Differentially Immunosuppressive Agent.- References.- Closing Remarks: Tangos for Mature Audiences.- List of Participants.
An extraordinary development of the knowledge, concepts and biomedical applications has occurred during the past two decades in the biological sciences, including the Reticuloendothelial Sys tem (RES). For example, it is now widely recognized that distinct classes of cells are involved in the recognition of "exogenous" invaders of the body such as microorg~nisms and other foreign an tigens, as well as of "endogenous" parasites represented by trans formed neoplastic cells and altered "self" antigens. Prominent among cell populations involved in such recognition of antigens and subsequent immune responses are those constituting the RES. In recent years, there has been much discussion and indeed contro versy as to what constitutes such a system and even whether the term "RES" is appropriate. Some investigators feel that the phago cytes are the most important cells of the RES as they playa major role in the defense mechanism of the host. Mononuclear phagocytes include tissue macrophages as well as circulating monocytes and their precursors. Although phagocytosis is a major functional ac tivity, it is only one of their several functions. The important role of phagocytes and other mononuclear cells in antibody forma tion, cell-mediated immunity, specific and non-specific resistance to microorganisms and tumor cells, as well as homeostatic adjust ments in general has become the focus of attention for many inves tigators.
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