1 Introduction.- 2 Image Quality.- 2.1. Editor's Introduction.- 2.2. The Quality of Continuous Tone Images.- 2.2.1. Concepts and Definitions.- 2.2.2. Factors Related to Geometrical and Physiological Optics.- 2.2.3. Experimental Programs for Studying the Informative Content of Images.- 2.3. Line-Scanned Imagery.- 2.3.1. Definitions, Confusions, and General Problems.- 2.3.2. Human Factors Experiments with Line Scan Imagery.- 2.4. Scale and Time.- 2.5. Bibliography.- 3 Image Quality and Observer Performance.- 3.1. Editor's Introduction.- 3.2. Notation..- 3.3. Photometric Display Quantification.- 3.4. Human Performance Evaluation Considerations.- 3.5. Individual Display Parameters and Observer Performance.- 3.6. The Modulation Transfer Function Area.- 3.7. Evaluation of the MTFA for Photographie Imagery.- 3.8. The MTFA and Raster-Scan Displays.- 3.9. Conclusions and Cautions.- 3.10. Editor's Postcript.- 4 Analysis of Noise-Required Contrast and Modulation in Image-Detecting and Display Systems.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. Historical Review of the Signal-to-Noise Ratio Theory of Visual Performance.- 4.3. The Ideal Photon Counter Model of an Image-Detecting System.- 4.3.1. Elementary Decision Theory.- 4.3.2. Output Signal-to-Noise Ratio.- 4.3.3. Detective Quantum Efficiency.- 4.3.4. Noise-Required Input Contrast.- 4.3.5. Noise-Required Input Contrast of the Visual System.- 4.4. Modifications of the Ideal Photon Counter Model.- 4.4.1. Fourier Analysis of Spatial Dispersion.- 4.4.2. Noise-Required Input Modulation.- 4.5. Noise Power Density Spectral Analysis.- 4.6. Editor's Postscript.- 5 Recent Psychophysical Experiments and the Display Signal-to-Noise Ratio Concept.- 5.1. Editor's Introduction.- 5.2. Introduction.- 5.3. The Elementary Model.- 5.4. Effects of Finite Apertures.- 5.5. Levels of Discrimination.- 5.6. Psychophysical Experimentation-Aperiodic and Periodic Images.- 5.7. Psychophysical Experiments; Recognition and Identification.- 5.8. Prediction of Electrooptical Sensor Resolution.- 5.9. Editor's Postscript.- 6 Image Reproduction by a Line Raster Process.- 6.1. Editor's Introduction.- 6.2. Notation.- 6.3. Raster Processes.- 6.3.1. Raster Constant and Frequency.- 6.3.2. Carrier Wave and Line Structure.- 6.3.3. System Response to Sine Wave Test Patterns.- 6.4. Raster Line Frequencies and MTF Combinations for Low Spurious Response.- 6.5. System Design.- 6.6. Noise in a Raster Process.- 6.7. Cathode Ray Tubes for Visual Display of TV Images.- 6.7.1. The Gaussian Spot.- 6.7.2. The Composite Spot of CRT's.- 6.7.3. Measured MTF's of High-Resolution CRT's.- 6.7.4. Specifications for Display CRT's.- 6.7.5. Flicker.- 6.7.6. System Requirements for Long-Persistence Picture Displays.- 6.7.7. MTF Measurements of Long-Persistence Phosphors.- 7 The Aliasing Problems in Two-Dimensional Sampled Imagery.- 7.1. Introduction.- 7.2. A Brief Review of One-Dimensional Sampling.- 7.3. Electrooptical Sampled Image Systems.- 7.4. Analytic Representation of Two-Dimensional Image Sampling.- 7.5. Effects of Aliasing on Sampled Images.- 7.6. Best Sampling Lattices.- 7.7. System Design Considerations for Sampled Image Systems 308 Appendix.- 8 A Summary.- 8.1. An Overview of Image Quality.- 8.2. A Few Last Remarks.- References.
As this book took form, its contents furnished the material for a graduate course at the University of Rhode Island. Toward the end of that course, the class reviewed the literature on display characteristics and design. The universal criticism voiced in those reviews was that there was lots of hardware information but no criteria upon which one could base a sound design. Though one could learn all about the size and brightness of various displays, one could not form any judgment about how ef fectively the display transferred information to an observer. As I reviewed our nearly completed text, an announcement crossed my desk stating that one of the professional societies in a seminar was to consider if one should not attempt to formulate a theory concerning information transfer from displays to an observer. That was the first title chosen for our book, before our publisher told us that "that was a paragraph, not a title. " The group of contributors to this book have labored long in the conviction that there was a real need to develop and present a consolidated theory based upon the work of a number of pioneers, including Barnes and Czerny, de Vries, Rose, Coltman and Anderson, Schade, Johnson, van Meeteren, and others, who established the various parts of a substantial theoretical and experimental back ground that seemed ripe for consolidation.
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