IV. Chemistry (Snakes and Scorpions).- The Isolation, Properties, and Amino Acid Sequence of Laticauda semifasciata III, a Weak and Reversible Neurotoxin of a Sea Snake, Laticauda semifasciata. Venom.- Structural Studies of the Toxic Components from Naja naja oxiana Venom.- Structural Nature of Presynaptic Neurotoxins from the Venoms of the Australian Tiger Snake, Notechis scutatus scutatus, and the Taipan, Oxyuranus scutellatus scutellatus.- Isolation and Amino Acid Sequence of Proteinase Inhibitors from the Venoms of Hemachatus haemachatus and Naja nivea.- Complete Amino Acid Sequence of Snake Venom Phospholipase A2.- Recent Results on the Structure of Scorpion and Snake Toxins.- Chemical Synthesis of a Peptide with Cobrotoxin Activity.- Synthetic Studies of ?-Bungarotoxin.- V. Chemistry (Other Species).- Occurrence of Thr6-Bradykinin and Its Analogous Peptide in the Venom of Polistes rothneyi iwatai.- Vespula Kinins: New Carbohydrate-Containing Bradykinin Analogues.- Structure and Function of Ricin D.- The Amino Acid Sequence of the Staphylococcal Enterotoxins.- Production, Isolation, Chemistry, and Biological Properties of Penicillium roqueforti Toxin.- Structure of a Toxic Phospholipid in the Northern Blenny Roe.- Ambrosic Acid, a New Irritant Principle from the Pollen of the Ragweed Ambrosia arthemisiifolia.- VI. Pharmacology (Snakes and Scorpions).- Activity of Selected Sea Snake Venoms on the Isolated Nerve-Diaphragm Preparation.- A Fluorescent Study of the Neurotoxic Effect of Cobrotoxin on the Cholinergic Reaction of Acetylcholine with Synaptic Membranes.- Blocking Action of Snake Venom Neurotoxins at Receptor Sites to Putative Central Nervous System Transmitters.- Species Differences in Reversibility of Neuromuscular Blockade by Elapid and Sea Snake Neurotoxins.- Comparison of Actions of Cobra Cardiotoxin and Scorpion Toxin on the Chick Biventer Cervicis Muscle.- Enhancement of the Cobra Venom Direct Lytic Factor by Prostaglandins and Related Synergistic Phenomena on Pulmonary Microvascular Events.- Bacterial and Snake Venom Phospholipases: Enzymatic Probes in the Study of Structure and Function in Bioelectrically Excitable Tissues.- Pharmacological Studies of the Hemorrhagic Principles Isolated from the Venom of Trimeresurus flavoviridis, a Crotalid.- Studies on the Mechanism of Action of Tityustoxin.- Pharmacological Blockade of the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects Produced by Tityustoxin in the Rat.- VII. Pharmacology (Other Species).- Mode of Action and Specificity of Habrobracon Venom (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).- Effect of Hornet Venom on Crustacean Neuromuscular Junctions.- New Pharmacobiochemical Data on the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Bee Venom.- Some Chemical and Pharmacological Studies on Two Venomous Jellyfish.- Glycine, Theophylline, and Antitoxin Effects on Rabbit Sphincter Pupillae Muscle Paralyzed by Tetanus Toxin.- The Effects of Tetanus Toxin on the Extensor and Flexor Muscles of the Hind Leg of the Cat.- Some Pharmacological Properties of Palythoatoxin Isolated from the Zoanthid, Palythoatuberculosa.- Pharmacological Studies on Surugatoxin, the Toxic Principle from Japanese Ivory Mollusk(Babylonia japonica).- VIII. Immunology.- Immunological Aspects of Venom of Sea Snakes from the Indo-Pacific.- Some News and Comments about a Rational and Efficient Antivenomous Serotherapy.- Immunological Properties of Two Proteins of Najanigricollis Venom.- Relationship between the Amount of Habu Toxoid Injected into the Monkey and the Resulting Antitoxin Titer in the Circulation.- IX. Clinical Aspects.- Epidemiological Study of Habu Bites on the Amani and Okinawa Islands of Japan.- Snake Bites in India.- Snake Venom Poisoning in the United States.- Unusual Complication of Snakebite: Hypopituitarism after Viper Bites.- Neostigmine in the Treatment of Elapidae Bites.- Renal Involvement in Snakebite.- Anticoagulation in Hemorrhagic Snake Venom Poisoning.- The Action of Tityus trinitatis Venom on the Canine Pancreas.- X. Miscellaneous.- Ecology and Distribution of Some Sea Snakes in Peninsular Malaysia.- Submicroscopic Organization of the Venom Gland of Vespa orientalis.- Tetrodotoxin: Rapid Release of a High Concentration from Skin of the Atlantic Puffer, Spheroides nephelus.- Histopathological Changes in the Liver of Fishes Resulting from Exposure to Dieldrin and Lindane.
During the past two decades, research on animal, plant, and microbial toxins has expanded rapidly, and new and exciting information has appeared to clarify both the clinical and therapeutic aspects of intoxication and, even more impor tant, to help us understand more exactly the structure and the mode of action of toxins on a molecular basis. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of toxin research, it is of vital impor tance that workers specializing in its different aspects should make a particular effort to exchange and keep up with new developments in this rapidly-expanding field. This has been one of the main purposes of the series of international meetings that have been held over the past ten years. The increasing interest in the results of toxin research can be explained partly by the growing general preoccupation with pollution and its toxic effects, which means that more anq more specialists in other fields are finding it necessary to keep in touch with current research into naturally occurring toxins. The papers in these volumes were presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins, organized by the Inter national Society on Toxicology, held in Tokyo in September, 1974. The editors have decided to include both original reports and review articles, arranged according to disciplines. Editing has been kept to the minimum necessary for adequate comprehension of the materials.
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