I. Investigators and Investigation.- 1. Historical Evolution: Methods, Attitudes, Goals.- 2. Roles for the Surgical Investigator.- 3. The Development of Surgical Investigation.- 4. The Academic Surgeon.- 5. Strengthening the Research Environment.- 6. The Marburg Experiment: Developing the New Specialty of Theoretical Surgery.- II. Starting the Research Process.- 7. Taming the Literature.- 8. How to Organize Your Reference Material.- 9. Systematically Reviewing Previous Work.- 10. Critical Appraisal of Published Research.- 11. Formulating an Initial Research Plan.- 12. Ethical Principles in Research.- 13. Selected Nonexperimental Methods: An Orientation.- 14. Experimental Methods: Clinical Trials.- 15. Clinical Biostatistics: An Overview.- 16. Case Studies for Learning Basic Biostatistical Concepts.- 17. Endpoints for Clinical Studies: Conventional and Innovative Variables.- 18. Risk and Prognosis.- 19. Evaluation of the Diagnostic Process.- 20. Scaling, Scoring, Staging.- 21. Using Computers in Research.- 22. Ten Tips on Preparing Research Proposals.- 23. Writing Grant Applications for Laboratory Research.- III. Implementation of Research.- 24. Why Clinical Research?.- 25. Organizing a Clinical Study.- 26. Using the Operating Room as a Laboratory.- 27. Research in the ICU.- 28. Experiments in Human Volunteers.- 29. Multicenter Collaborative Clinical Trials.- 30. Health Services Research.- 31. Health Policy Research: A Surgical Perspective.- 32. Technology Assessment.- 33. From the Bedside to the Laboratory and Back.- 34. Research in the Surgical Laboratory: A Brief Historical Appraisal.- 35. Animal Experimentation.- 36. Recombinant DNA Technology.- 37. The Isolated Organ in Research.- 38. Using Computer Models.- IV. Reporting Your Work.- 39. Your First Abstract.- 40. Writing an Effective Abstract.- 41. The Ten-Minute Talk.- 42. Commenting on a Ten-Minute Talk.- 43. Facing the Blank Page.- 44. Writing Your First Scientific Paper.- 45. Writing for Publication.- 46. What to Do When You Are Asked to Write a Chapter for a Book.- 47. How to Review Manuscripts.- 48. Audiovisual Support for Scientific Presentations.- 49. The Longer Talk.- 50. Presenting Your Work at International Meetings.- 51. Strategies for Coping with Jet Lag.- 52. Organizing Your Slides.- 53. Organizing Meetings, Panels, Seminars, Symposia, and Consensus Conferences.- V. International Perspectives on Surgical Research.- 54. Surgical Research in Canada.- 55. Contributions from France.- 56. Traditions and Transitions in Germany.- 57. Surgical Research in Italy.- 58. Japan's Integration of Eastern Values and Modern Science.- 59. New Initiatives and Ideas in Spain.- 60. Orderly Evolution to a Better Future in Sweden.- 61. The Confluence of Private and Public Resources in Switzerland.- 62. Opportunities, Achievements, Problems, and Solutions in Surgical Research in the United Kingdom.- 63. Research Challenges and Solutions in the United States.- 64. International Exchange for Surgical Education.- 65. Common Characteristics and Distinctive Diversity in Surgical Research: Some International Comparisons.- VI. Opportunities in Research.- 66. Future Horizons in Surgical Research.- About the Editors.
What is the best way to plan surgical research? What problems are most often encountered in clinical research? How should a research report be presented at a scientific meeting? These questions and more are all answered in Principles and Practice of Research.The second edition has added new sections on animal research models, the molecular and cellular dimension of surgical research, and practical guidelines for obtaining government and third-party funding. Other improvements include a friendlier discussion of statistics and updated material about on-line computer literature searches. This book provides every clinical researcher with a roadmap around the pitfalls of poorly designed studies, through the jungle of incomprehensible statistics, and over the hurdles of research reporting to a successful study from start to finish. From the reviews of the first edition: "For me, it is a bible and a must for every Ph.D. or M.D. involved in clinical research, especially in the field of surgery. It should be on the table - not on the book shelf - of both the young as well as the experienced investigator as a readily accessible source of information to avoid the trial-and-error approach to problems in surgical research." #World Journal of Surgery#1 "...a carefully conceived, concise blend of factual theory and principles, practical guidelines, and philosophical perspective... ...I have found it hard to identify any omission (even a selected bibliography on laboratory animals, their care, handling, and anatomy is included) and impossible to single out any individual contribution: each is a treasure - well written, concise, and complete." #The Lancet#2 "The feature of the book is that, despite attention to detail, it maintains a clear and practical approach to the whole field, beginning with the reasons for carryin
This second edition has new chapters and expanded discussion of topics such as statistics and on-line literature searchers. The first edition was highly acclaimed; it gives basic principles that are applicable to all clinical studies in the operative specialties. The text is easy-to-read English, each chapter is well-outlined with subheadings, and many examples make the practical advise easy to understand.