1 Corrosion Creep and Stress Rupture.- Engineering Aspects of Creep and Stress Rupture.- Classification of Corrosion Creep and Stress Rupture.- Critical Review of Behavioral Types.- Type I Behavior.- Type II Behavior.- Summary of Corrosion Creep and Stress Rupture Behavior.- High-Temperature Corrosion.- Oxidation- and Corrosion-Induced Microstructural and Chemical Effects and Mechanical Behavior.- Surface Coating, Scale, and Residual Stress Effects on Dislocation Production and Mobility.- Zone Enriched with Environmental Elements and Vacancies.- Internally Formed Particles.- Zones Depleted of Alloying Elements and Precipitates.- Grain Boundary Microstructural Changes.- Discussion.- Environmental Effects on Creep Rate.- Environmental Effects on Stress Rupture.- Concluding Remarks.- References.- 2 The Role of Metallurgical Variables in Hydrogen-Assisted Environmental Fracture.- Phenomenology.- Testing Methods.- Ferritic and Martensitic Steels.- Composition.- Microstructure and Thermal Treatment.- Grain Size and Texture.- Synergistic Effects.- Austenitic Stainless Steels.- Composition.- Microstructure and Thermal Treatment.- Grain Size and Texture.- Other Iron-Base Austenites.- Single-Phase Alloys.- Precipitation-Strengthened Alloys.- Aluminum Alloys.- Composition.- Grain Shape.- Thermal and Thermomechanical Treatment.- The Hydrogen Question.- Titanium Alloys.- Composition.- Microstructure and Thermal Treatment.- Grain Size and Texture.- Fracture Morphology and Hydrides.- Nickel Alloys.- Single-Phase Alloys.- Precipitation-Strengthened Alloys.- Dispersion-Strengthened Alloys.- Parallel Behavior in Different Alloy Systems.- Discussion.- Electrochemical Factors in Hydrogen-Induced Cracking.- Slip Mode as a Metallurgical Variable.- The Behavior and Effect of Hydrogen.- A General Viewpoint on Hydrogen-Induced Cracking.- The Role of Metallurgical Variables in Fracture.- Implications for Hydrogen Embrittlement Mechanisms.- Concluding Remarks.- Epilogue.- References.- 3 EMF Measurements at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures.- Recent Applications of EMF Measurements.- Historical Background.- Comments on Cell EMF, Thermodynamic Relationships, Cell Design, Materials, and Sources of Error.- Cell EMF and Thermodynamic Relationships.- Cell Container Design.- Choice of Materials for Cell Containers.- Sources of Errors and Corrections.- Cell EMF's, Dependence on Time, Temperature, Electrolyte Concentration, and Derivation of Standard Electrode Potentials.- Cell EMF-Time Dependence.- Cell EMF-Temperature.- Cell EMF-Concentration and Nature of Electrolyte.- Determinations of Standard Electrode Potential from EMF Measurements as a Function of Temperature.- EMF Studies at Elevated Pressures.- Temperature and Pressure Coefficients of Cell EMF.- Dissociation Constants and Effects of Pressure and Temperature.- Determination of Ionization Constant of Water from EMF Measurements.- Measurement of pH from EMF Studies.- Activity Coefficient Data from EMF Measurements.- Activity Coefficient Data in Mixed Electrolytes from EMF Measurements.- Transport Numbers from EMF Measurements.- Some Examples of Areas of Necessary Future Work.- References.- 4 Nucleation Mechanism in Oxide Formation during Anodic Oxidation of Aluminum.- Theories Explaining the Processes of Anodic Oxide Formation.- The Mechanism of Oxide Formation According to the Model of Keller-Hunter-Robinson.- Further Theories for Interpreting the Mechanism of Oxide Formation.- The Study of the Anodic Oxidation of Aluminum with the Special Methods of Reaction Kinetics-Experimental Procedure.- Characteristics of the Mechanism of Anodic Oxide Formation- Nucleation Model.- The Role of the Technological Factors of Anodic Oxidation in the Morphological and Structural Development of the Oxide Layer.- The Reaction Periods of Anodic Oxide Formation on the Aluminum Surface.- Influence of the Chemical, Metallurgical, and Crystallographical Properties of the Base Metal on the Structure of the Oxide Layer: Ep
This series was organized to provide a forum for review papers in the area of corrosion. The aim of these reviews is to bring certain areas of corrosiou science and technology into a sharp focus. The volumes of this series are published approximately on a yearly basis and each contains three to five reviews. The articles in each volume are selected in such a way as to be of interest both to the corrosion scientists and the corrosion technologists. There is, in fact, a particular aim in juxtaposing these interests because of the importance of mutual interaction and interdisciplinarity so important in corrosion studies. It is hoped that the corrosion scientists in this way may stay abreast of the activities in corrosion technology and vice versa. In this series the term "corrosion" is used in its very broadest sense. It includes, therefore, not only the degradation of metals in aqueous en vironment but also what is commonly referred to as "high-temperature oxidation. " Further, the plan is to be even more general than these topics; the series will include all solids and all environments. Today, engineering solids include not only metals but glasses, ionic solids, polymeric solids, and composites of these. Environments of interest must be extended to liquid metals, a wide variety of gases, nonaqueous electrolytes, and other non aqueous liquids.
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