Surface Spectroscopy.- Surface Studies of Multicomponent Silicate Glasses: Quantitative Analysis, Sputtering Effects and the Atomic Arrangement.- Depth-Profiling Studies of Glasses and Ceramics by Ion Beam Techniques.- Analysis of Solids by Spark Source and Laser Mass Spectroscopy.- Surface and Interface Studies of Metal Oxide/Glass Systems.- Atomic Structure at Electrode Surfaces.- Surface Techniques.- Surface Characterization of Certain Metal Oxides Determined by the Isothermal Adsorption and Desorption of Argon.- Hysteresis in Mercury Porosimetry.- Pore Structure Characterization by Mercury Porosimetry.- Surface Characteristics of Yttria Precursors in Relation to Their Sintering Behavior.- Vibrational Spectroscopic Techniques.- An Overview of Techniques Used in FT-IR Spectroscopy.- Raman Microprobe Spectroscopy of Polyphase Ceramics.- Characterization of Anodically Grown Native Oxide Films on Hg0.7Cd0.3Te.- The Raman Spectra of Potassium Borogermanate Glasses.- Characterization of the Structure and Nonstoichiometry of CaO-NiO Solid Solutions.- Vibrational Spectroscopies of Molecular Monolayers in Thin Film Geometries.- Characterization of Rare Earth Sulfides.- Electron Optical Methods.- Applications of Analytical Microscopy to Ceramic Research.- Analysis of Second-Phase Particles in Al2O3.- Microstructural Characterization Abnormal Grain Growth Development in Al2O3.- Properties and Characterization of Surface Oxides on Aluminum Alloys.- The Characterization of Microcracks in Brittle Solids.- X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy of Intergranular Phases in ?11 and ?' Sialons.- EM Study of the Structure and Composition of Grain Boundaries in (Mn, Zn) Fe2O4.- Cross-Sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy of Semiconductors.- Microstructural Characterization of Nuclear Waste Ceramics.- Semiautomatic Image Analysis for Microstructure and Powder Characterization.- Acoustic and Mechanical Properties.- Acoustic Characterization of Structural Ceramics.- Characterization of Ceramics by Acoustic Microscopy.- Determination of Slow Crack Growth Using an Automated Test Technique.- Biaxial Compression Testing of Refractory Concretes.- Mechanical Testing of Glass Hollow Microspheres.- General Crystallographic Techniques.- The Renaissance of X-ray Powder Diffraction.- Characterization of Imperfections in Plasma-Sprayed Titania.- Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Coatings.- Analysis of Silicon Nitride.- Acid-Base Properties of Ceramic Powders.- Recent Advances in Computerized High Temperature Differential Thermal Analysis.- Reflectance Technique for Measurement of Bottom Surface Tin Concentration on Clear Float Glass.- Characterization of Reinforcements for Inorganic Composites.- General Glass Characterization Studies.- Nuclear Reaction Analysis of Glass Surfaces: The Study of the Reaction Between Water and Glass.- A Study of Water in Glass by an Autoradiographic Method that Utilizes Tritiated Water.- Characterization of Borosilicate Glass Containing Savannah River Plant Radioactive Waste.- Microstructure of Phase-Separated Sodium Borosilicate Glasses.- The Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity of Simulated Glass Forming Nuclear Waste Melts.- Volume-Temperature Relationships in Simulated Glass Forming Nuclear Waste Melts.- Property/Morphology Relationships in Glasses.- The Characterization of Individual Redox Ions in Glasses.- Author Index.
The characterization of materials and phenomena has historically been the principal limitation to the development in each area of science. Once what we are observing is well defined, a theoretical analysis rapidly follows. Modern theories of chemical bonding did not evolve until the methods of analytical chemistry had progressed to a point where the bulk stoichiometry of chemical compounds was firmly established. The great progress made during this century in understanding chemistry has followed directly from the development of an analytical chemistry based on the Dalton assumption of multiple proportions. It has only become apparent in recent years that the extension of our understanding of materials hinges on their non-stoichiometric nature. The world of non-Daltonian chemistry is very poorly understood at present because of our lack of ability to precisely characterize it. The emergence of materials science has only just occurred with our recognition of effects, which have been thought previously to be minor variations from ideality, as the principal phenomena controlling properties. The next step in the historical evolution of materials science must be the development of tools to characterize the often subtle phenomena which determine properties of materials. The various discussions of instrumental techniques presented in this book are excellent summaries for the state-of-the-art of materials characterization at this rather critical stage of materials science. The application of the tools described here, and those yet to be developed, holds the key to the development of this infant into a mature science.
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