Volume 5 of this series continues its coverage of currently active re search fields in ornithology. Because an editor can never be a disin terested observer of his or her own editorial efforts, any claim for su periority of this volume is not without conflict of interest. Even so, Volume 5 has certain merits that even a parent should acknowledge, and I find the current chapters not merely timely and authoritative but compelling in their demand for a reader's attention. Wolfgang and Roswitha Wiltschko provide a perceptive review of magnetic orientation in birds, a piece dedicated to Fritz Merkel, the pioneer in studies of magnetic orientation. Sergei Kharitonov and Doug las Siegel-Causey are concerned with the behavioral ecology of seabird coloniality, emphasizing their field experiences in the USSR and the United States. Ted Miller examines the application of studies of bird behavior to comparative biology, pursuing the interface of behavior and evolutionary biology adumbrated by Konrad Lorenz in the 1930s. Jeremy Raynor gives us a summary of the work over the past decade on bird flight, which is not, by turns, as complex or as simple as we had formerly believed. Carrol Henderson describes recent develop ments in nongame bird conservation, based on his pioneering work in the State of Minnesota. Alan Kamil discusses optimal experimental design for research in ornithology, a field in which experimental work is frequently difficult to pursue.
1 Form and Function in Avian Flight.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Flapping Flight Aerodynamics.- 2.1. Airfoil Action and Force Generation.- 2.2. Thrust from Flapping Wings.- 2.3. Vortex Action in Flapping Flight.- 2.4. Wingbeat Kinematics in Flying Birds.- 2.5. Theoretical Models of Flapping Flight Mechanics.- 2.6. Scaling and Avian Flight.- 2.7. Von Helmholtz's Scaling Theory.- 3. Ecology and Wing Morphology in Flying Birds.- 3.1. Allometry of Wing Size.- 3.2. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of Wing Morphology.- 3.3. The Mosaic of Adaptation.- 3.4. Comparison of Birds and Bats.- 3.5. Why Do Ducks Have Small Wings?.- 3.6. The Flight Muscles: Pectoralis and Supracoracoideus.- 4. Evolutionary Constraints on Flight Adaptation.- 4.1. The Energy Margin and the Upper Limit to Size.- 4.2. Scaling of Wingbeat Frequency.- 4.3. Constraints on Morphological Adaptation.- 4.4. Flight Morphology and Fitness.- References.- 2 Magnetic Orientation in Birds.- 1. The Magnetic Field of the Earth.- 1.1. Spatial Distribution of the Geomagnetic Field.- 1.2. Temporal Variations of the Magnetic Field.- 1.3. Experimental Magnetic Fields.- 2. The Magnetic Compass of Birds.- 2.1. Functional Characteristics.- 2.2. A Widespread Mechanism among Birds.- 2.3. Perception of Magnetic Fields.- 3. Role of the Magnetic Compass in Bird Orientation.- 3.1. The Magnetic Compass in Homing.- 3.2. The Magnetic Compass in Migratory Orientation.- 3.3. The Magnetic Compass as a Directional Reference System.- 4. Noncompass Use of the Magnetic Field.- 4.1. Controlling the Course of Migration.- 4.2. Magnetic Parameters in the Navigational "Map".- References.- 3 Temporal Patterns of Pair Formation and Reproduction in Annual Cycles and Associated Endocrinology in Waterfowl.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Strategies of Reproduction and Breeding Patterns in Waterfowl.- 3. A Brief Review of Avian Endocrinology.- 3.1. The Hypothalamus and Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones and Factors.- 3.2. The Pituitary and Associated Hormones.- 3.3. Inhibitory Feedback by Steroids.- 3.4. Stimulatory Feedback by Steroids.- 3.5. Other Hormones Relevant to Reproduction.- 4. Summary of the Major Components of the Annual Cycle.- 5. Temporal Patterns of Molt in Waterfowl.- 5.1. Molt Chronology.- 5.2. Endocrine Correlates of Molt.- 6. Autumnal Gonadal Recrudescence.- 7. Autumnal Migration.- 7.1. Autumnal Migratory Chronology.- 7.2. Endocrine Correlates of Migration.- 8. Winter Period of Initial Pair Formation.- 8.1. Temporal Patterns of Pair Formation and Reproduction.- 8.2. Male Courtship and Reproductive Activity.- 8.3. Female Receptivity to Male Courtship.- 8.4. Mate Choice and Pair Formation in Waterfowl.- 9. Vernal Premigratory Changes and Early Migration.- 9.1. The Role of Photoperiod.- 9.2. Temporal Patterning of Pulsatile Hormone Release.- 9.3. Importance of the Timing of Nutrient Acquisition, Molt, and Spring Migration on Subsequent Time of Nesting.- 10. Late Spring Migration and Arrival on the Breeding Grounds.- 10.1. Social Factors Regulating Reproduction.- 10.2. Influence of the Flock and Social Facilitation on Reproduction.- 11. Nesting and Egg Laying.- 11.1. Clutch Size and Seasonal Patterns of Egg Laying.- 11.2. Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Reproductive Traits.- 11.3. Physiological Mechanisms and Endocrine Correlates of Egg Laying.- 12. Incubation and Renesting.- 12.1. Incubation and Renesting Behavior.- 12.2. Endocrine Correlates of Incubation and Renesting.- 13. Seasonal Decline and Termination of the Reproductive Phase.- 14. Summary.- References.- 4 Female-Biased Philopatry, Monogamy, and the Timing of Pair Formation in Migratory Waterfowl.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Waterfowl Breeding Systems.- 3. Why Monogamy, Early Pairing, and Female Philopatry?.- 3.1. Female Mate Choice.- 3.2. Female-Biased Philopatry.- 3.3. Influence of Inbreeding on Dispersal.- 3.4. Philopatry and Lifetime Monogamy in Swans and Geese.- 4. The Timing of Pairing in Winter.- 4.1. Mate Testing.- 4.2. Diet and the Timin
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