'1 Synaptic Interactions between Cortical Neurons.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Measures of Synaptic Interactions.- 1.2. Effects of Synaptic Connections.- 2. Visual Cortex.- 2.1. Application of the Cross-Correlation Technique in the Visual System.- 2.2. Geniculocortical Interaction.- 2.3. Corticogeniculate Interaction.- 2.4. Intra- and Intercolumnar Interaction in Single and Adjacent Functional Columns of the Visual Cortex.- 2.5. Transcolumnar Interaction between Distant Columns.- 2.6. Synaptic Interaction Demonstrated by STA.- 2.7. Functional Conclusions.- 3. Auditory Cortex.- 4. Somatosensory Cortex.- 4.1. Cross-Correlation Studies.- 4.2. STA Studies.- 5. Motor Cortex.- 5.1. Cross-Correlation Studies.- 5.2. STA Studies.- 6. Association Cortex.- 7. Hippocampus.- 7.1. Cross-Correlation Studies.- 7.2. STA Studies.- 8. Summary and Conclusions.- 8.1. Common Features of Synaptic Interactions.- 8.2. Future Directions.- 9. References.- 2 The Role of Layer I in Cortical Function.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Behavioral Role of Layer I.- 3. Layer I in Sensory Cortices.- 3.1. Electrophysiology of Layer II Neurons.- 3.2. Afferent Connections and Physiology.- 4. Architecture of Layer I.- 4.1. Subdivisions.- 4.2. Neuronal Composition.- 4.3. Compartmentation of Apical Dendrites.- 5. The Proximal and Distal GABAergic Systems.- 6. Compartmentation of Afferent Connections.- 6.1. Thalamic and Subicular Projections.- 6.2. Serotoninergic Projections to Layer I.- 7. Passive and Active Interactions between Distal and Proximal Dendritic Compartments.- 8. Cholinergic Projections: Organization and Role in Event Holding.- 9. Noradrenergic Projections to Layer I and Memory Consolidation.- 10. What Is the Role of Layer I in Cortical Function?.- 11. References.- 3 Synapse Replacement on Cortical Neurons following Denervation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Process of Reinnervation in the Dentate Gyrus of Adult Rats: Nature of the Growth Response of Pre- and Postsynaptic Elements.- 2.1. Documentation of Synapse Replacement on Denervated Neurons Using Quantitative Electron Microscopic Techniques.- 2.2. The Nature of the Growth Response of Pre-and Postsynaptic Elements.- 2.3. Light Microscopic Studies of Afferent Reorganization.- 2.4. Quantitative Electron Microscopic Studies of Terminal Proliferation.- 2.5. Multiple Synapse Formation.- 2.6. Temporal Relationship between Terminal Proliferation and Synapse Replacement.- 2.7. Time Course of Growth of the Participating Systems.- 2.8. Is the Time Course and Extent of Synapse Replacement Constant in Different Settings?.- 2.9. Specificity in the Pattern of Synapse Formation by Reinnervating Fibers.- 2.10. Synapse Formation: Renovation of the Old Synaptic Sites or New Construction.- 2.11. Remodeling the Postsynaptic Cells' Receptive Surface during Reinnervation.- 2.12. Lesion-Induced Growth: Coordinate Growth of Pre- and Postsynaptic Cells.- 3. Role of Glial Cells in Synapse Remodeling.- 3.1. Astrocytes.- 3.2. Microglia.- 4. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Lesion-Induced Growth.- 5. Cellular and Molecular Processes Associated with the Phase of Terminal Degeneration, Dendritic Atrophy, and Glial Proliferation and Hypertrophy.- 5.1. Potential Initiating Signals.- 5.2. Molecular Processes That Lead to Dendritic Atrophy.- 5.3. Molecular Events within Reactive Glial Cells.- 5.4. Changes in Astrocyte Mitogenic and Morphogenetic Factors following Injury.- 6. Cellular and Molecular Processes Associated with the Phase of Terminal Proliferation, Synaptogenesis, and Dendritic Regrowth.- 6.1. Events within Sprouting Neurons.- 6.2. Events within the Postsynaptic Neurons and the Denervated Neuropil.- 6.3. Possible Role of Neuronotrophic Substances and Growth Factors.- 7. Conclusion.- 8. References.- 4 Olfactory Frontal Cortex and Multiple Olfactory Processing in Primates.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Olfactory Frontal Cortex in Primates.- 2.1. Searc
This volume of the series on "Cerebral Cortex" deals with a variety of topics that need to be considered in our overall understanding of the functions of the cerebral hemispheres. Chapters in the first part of this volume deal with normal functions that were not covered in earlier volumes, while chapters in the latter part deal with the functioning of the cortex in various altered states. The first chapter is by Eberhard Fetz, Keisuke Toyama, and Wade Smith, and it considers the interactions that can be demonstrated to exist between cortical neurons by using the technique of cross-correlation. The second chapter is by Brent Vogt who examines the connections and functions of layer I of the cerebral cortex, a layer that has been largely ignored in the past, and he proposes that this layer probably plays an important role in learning and memory acquisi tion. This is followed by a chapter in which Oswald Steward presents a review of what is currently known about synaptic replacement following denervation of cortical neurons, and especially those in the hippocampus.
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