Forces.- Objectives.- Force concept.- Representation of forces: diagram of forces.- Resultant force.- Sum of vectors.- Polygon rule.- Parallelogram rule.- Components method.- Trigonometric method.- Newton's law.- First law.- Second law.- Third law.- Some specific forces.- Force of gravity.- Muscle force.- Contact force, reaction and normal force.- Frictional force.- Pressure.- Torques.- Objectives:.- Concept: Torque produced by a force.- Binary Torque due to two or more non parallel forces.- Rotational equilibrium.- Center of gravity.- Objectives:.- Weight and center of gravity.- Practical method for determining the center of gravity.- Analytical method for determining the center of gravity.- Equilibrium: stable, unstable and neutral.- Movement of the center of gravity.- Rotations.- Objectives:.- Moments of inertia.- Moment of inertia of extended bodies with regular geometry.- Radius of gyration.- Parallel axis theorem.- Moment of inertia of the human body.- Angular momentum and its conservation.- Variation of angular momentum.- Simple machines.- Objectives:.- Work done by a force.- Levers.- First class levers.- Second class levers.- Third class levers.- Levers in the human body.- Moving body.- Articulations and joints.- Muscle and levers.- Identification of levers.- Pulleys.- Combination of pulleys.- Traction systems.- Inclined plane.- Muscles.- Objectives.- Equilibrium conditions of a rigid body.- System of parallel forces.- System of non parallel forces.- Forces on the hip.- Forces on the spinal column.- Forces on the spinal column with incorrect posture.- Forces on the spinal column with correct posture.- Bones.- Objectives.- Skeleton and bones.- Composition of bones.- Mechanical properties of solids.- Tensile and compressive forces.- Elastic modulus.- Young's modulus.- Shear modulus.- Mechanical properties of bones.- Pressure or stress on intravertebral discs.- Pressure on vertebra.- Shear stress in lumbo-sacral disc.- Breaking of bones in collisions.- Easy laboratory exercises.- Introduction.- Significant figures and precision.- Activity 1: construction and calibration of a dynamometer using a rubber band.- Activity 2: conditions for static equilibrium with relation to translation.- Activity 3: experiment with torque, using rubber band dynamometer.- Activity 4: center of gravity - construction of a very stable system .- Activity 5: construction of a system to analyze moment of inertia and conservation of angular momentum.- Activity 6: construction and analysis of different classes of levers.- Activity 7: construction and analysis of inclined plane.- Activity 8: rubber band dynamometers in series and parallel, to simulate muscles.- Activity 9: determination of tensile strength of a rubber band.
Über den Autor
Emico Okuno is a Professor at the Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo. She has authored many books in portugese such as "Physics for the Biological and Biomedical Sciences" and "Physics of Football".
Luciano Fratin is a Professor of Engineering at Armando Alvares Penteado, Sao Paulo.
Biomechanics of the Human Body teaches basic physics concepts using examples and problems based on the human body. The reader will also learn how the laws of mechanics may help to understand the conditions of the static and dynamic equilibrium of one of the marvels of nature: the human body.
The mathematical language used in physics has always been pointed out as responsible for students' difficulties. So, each concept given is followed by explanatory examples, with subsequent application and fixation exercises. It is a richly illustrated book that facilitates the comprehension of presented concepts.
Biomechanics of the Human Body can be useful to students of physical and occupational therapy, physical education, the life sciences, and health care professionals who deal with biomechanics. This book is also recommended for sport practitioners as well as the general reader interested in the mechanics of the human body.
Teaches basic physics concepts, particularly involving forces, rotation and elasticity, using examples and problems based on the human body
Contains lab exercises that demonstrate the physics of the human body
Each chapter has worked examples and problems with solutions
Of particular interest to students in sports medicine, orthopaedics, physiotherapy