The Formation of Mars: Building Blocks and Accretion Time Scale.- Core Formation and Mantle Differentiation on Mars.- Long-Term Evolution of the Martian Crust-Mantle System.- Outgassing History and Escape of the Martian Atmosphere and Water Inventory.- Quantifying the Martian Hydrosphere: Current Evidence, Time Evolution and Implications for the Habitability of the Planet.- Volatile Trapping in Martian Clathrates.- Geochemical Reservoirs and Timing of Sulphur Cycling on Mars.- Geochemistry of Carbonates on Mars.- Implications for Climate History and Nature of Aqueous Environments.- Geochemical Consequences of Widespread Clay Mineral Formation in Mars' Ancient Crust.
Über den Autor
Dr. Michael Toplis is a senior research scientist at the Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie in Toulouse, France. He received a B.A. in Natural Sciences from the University of Cambridge in 1990 and obtained a PhD from the University of Bristol in 1994, working on iron-rich igneous rocks. From 1994 to 1996 he worked on the structure and properties of silicate melts at the Bayerisches Geoinstitut in Bayreuth, Germany, before working on experimental and geochemical study of terrestrial magmatic rocks at the CRPG in Nancy, France as a junior CNRS research scientist. He has been working in Toulouse at the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées since 2004, where he is currently head of a vibrant Planetary Science group which brings together specialists from a wide range of backgrounds focussing on the internal structure, surface properties and plasma environments of planets, moons and other rocky/icy bodies of the solar system. His own interests are focussed on planetary magmatism as seen on large objects such as Mars, but also early in the solar system on protoplanets such as Vesta or the parent bodies of achondrite meteorites. Dr. Toplis has acted as associate editor of American Mineralogist and Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, and he is currently a member of the Solar System working group of the French national space agency.
Over the last fifteen years, space-based exploration of the solar system has increased dramatically, with more and more sophisticated orbiters and landers being sent to Mars. This intense period, rich in unprecedented scientific results, has led to immense progress in our perception of Mars and of its evolution over geological time. In parallel, advances in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments also shed new light on the geochemical evolution of the planet Mars.
The ISSI-Europlanet Workshop entitled "Quantifying the Martian Geochemical Reservoirs" was held in Bern in April 2011 with the objective to create a diverse interdisciplinary forum composed of scientists directly involved in space-based exploration of the Martian surface, meteoriticists studying SNC meteorites, and planetary and/or Earth scientists simulating, numerically or experimentally, the physical and chemical processes occurring on or within Mars. The chapters of this book provide an overview of current knowledge of the past and present Martian geochemical reservoirs, from the accretionary history to the secondary alteration processes at the surface. In addition to the detailed description of data from Mars and the methods used to obtain them, the contributions also emphasize comparison with features on Earth, providing a perspective on the extent to which our knowledge of terrestrial systems influences interpretation of data from Mars. Areas that would benefit from future work and measurements are also identified, providing a view of the short-term and long-term future of the study of Mars.
This collection of chapters constitutes a timely perspective on current knowledge and thinking concerning the geochemical evolution of Mars, providing context and a valuable reference point for even more exciting future discoveries. It is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in geochemistry and space science. Previously published in Space Science Reviews, Vol. 174/1-4, 2013.
Presents a compilation of the latest NASA and ESA space mission exploration data of the Martian surface
Provides one of the rare, truly interdisciplinary looks at Mars by bringing together a wide range of different data types
Gives critical background reviews and current assessments for use in planning future Mars missions