1.Introduction.- Section I: Temperate forest-grassland ecotones: prairies, steppes, and pampas.- 2. Woodland-grassland ecotonal shifts in environmental mosaics: lessons learnt from the environmental history of the Carpathian Basin (Central Europe) during the Holocene and the last ice age based on investigation of paleobotanical and mollusk remains.- 3. Ecotones as complex arenas of disturbance, climate and human impacts: the trans-Andean forest-steppe ecotone of northern Patagonia.- 4. Woody-Herbaceous-Livestock Species Interaction.- 5. Woody plant invasions in Pampa grasslands - a biogeographical and community assembly perspective.- Section II: Tropical forest-grassland ecotones: old fields, savannas, and llanos.- 6. Post-agricultural ecotones in Puerto Rico.- 7. South Brazilian forest-grassland ecotones: Dynamics affected by climate, disturbance and woody species traits.- 8.Long-term perspectives on Tropical forest-savanna dynamics in lowland Bolivia from the last ice age until the present.- 9.Using palaeoecological data to define main vegetation dynamics along the savanna-forest ecotone in Colombia: implications for accurate assessment of human impacts.- Section III: Boral and cloud forest-grassland ecotones: páramo and alpine grasslands.- 10. The dynamic history of the upper forest line ecotone in the northern Andes.- 11. Climatic drivers of tree growth and recent recruitment at the Pyrenean alpine tree line ecotone.- 12. The alpine treeline ecotone in the southernmost Swedish Scandes - dynamism on different scales.-13.How climate and fire disturbances influence contrasted dynamics of Picea glauca ecotones at alpine tree lines in Atlantic and continental eastern North Ameria.-Conclusions, synthesis, and future directions
Ecotones are dynamic over-lapping boundary areas where major terrestrial biomes meet. As past studies have shown, and as the chapters in this book will illustrate, their structure, size, and scope have changed considerably over the millennia, expanding and shrinking as climate and/or other driving conditions, also changed. Today, however, many of them are changing at a rate not seen for a long time, perhaps largely due to climate change and other human-induced factors. Indeed ecotones are more sensitive to climate change than the biomes on either side, and thus may serve as critical early indicators of future climate change. As ecotones change, they also redefine the limits of the biomes on either side by altering their distributions of species because, in addition to their own endemic species, any ecotone will also have species from both adjoining biomes. Consequently, they may also be places of high levels of species interaction, serving as active evolutionary laboratories, which generate new species that then migrate back into adjacent biomes.
Ecotones Between Forest and Grassland explores how these ecotones have changed in the past, how they are changing today, and how they are likely to change in the future. The book includes chapters from around the world with a special focus on South American and Neotropical ecotones.
Includes chapters from around the world with a special focus on South American and Neotropical ecotones
While the book has chapters from around the world, there is a special focus on South American and Neotropical ecotones
Puts post-agricultural areas in a wider context by presenting them as a kind of ecotone