I Cognitive Factors.- 1 Development of a Mathematical Model of Memory for Clinical Research Applications in Aging.- Storage and Retrieval Contributions to Memory Dysfunction in Clinical Aging Populations.- Measurement of Storage and Retrieval Processes.- Conclusions, Limitations, and Prospects.- Appendix 1.A.: Memory Measurement Using the Two-Stage Model.- 2 Aging and Memory Disorders: A Neuropsychological Analysis.- Declarative Memory.- Implicit Memory.- Prospective Memory.- Concluding Remarks.- II Behavioral-Physiological Factors.- 3 Neuromuscular Performance of the Aged.- Balance in Upright Posture.- Human Walking Performance and Aging.- Age-Related Changes in Human Voluntary Strength.- Conclusion.- 4 Electrophysiology and Aging: Slowing, Inhibition, and Aerobic Fitness.- CNS Aging.- Slowing in Old Age.- Central Inhibition and Aging.- Event-Related Potentials in Atypical Aging.- Physical Fitness and Brain Functioning.- Summary.- III Toward an Integration of Cognitive and Behavioral-Physiological Factors.- 5 Physical Activity and Cognitive Changes with Aging.- Central Processing, Active Behavior, and Specific Motor Responses.- Factors Contributing to Impaired Response.- Impact of Habitual Activity.- Practical Implications.- Conclusions.- 6 The Measurement of Individual Differences in Aging: The Distinction Between Usual and Successful Aging.- General Issues.- Indexing Individual Differences in Usual Age.- An Index of Successful Aging.- Studies 1 to 4: Methods.- General Discussion and Conclusions.- IV Discussion.- 7 Cognition, Motor Behavior, and the Assessment of Atypical Aging.- Cognition and Motor Behavior.- Atypical Aging.- What Does Atypical Mean?.- Methods of Assessing Aging.- When Do We Stop Analyzing Atypicality?.- Summary.- Author Index.
It is a truism that as we age there are a number of underlying physiological changes conspiring to alter our level of behavioral and cognitive function ing. Despite the inherent interrelatedness of these behavioral and cognitive changes, all too often the papers we read confine themselves to specific, isolated components of the developing process. Although exceptions nat urally exist, we believe that these exceptions should become rule. Although an integrated approach is important in all areas of adult devel opment, it is perhaps particularly germane in the study of atypical aging. Here, changes in overall functioning can occur in rapid succession, with the synchrony of decline between different subprocesses making it difficult to factor changes in one process from changes in another. For example, because changes in cognitive functioning co-occur with other dramatic changes in (motoric) response capacities, it is unclear how one can effec tively study changes in the ability to cognize independent of changes in the very mechanisms (ability to execute motor sequences) so often used to index cognitive performance.
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