1 The Neuropsychology of Aging and Dementia: Clinical Issues.- Normal Aging.- The Dementias.- 2 Neuropsychological and Computed Tomographic Identification in Dementia.- Quantifying Cerebral Measurements.- Neuropsychological Findings in Dementia.- Neuropsychological-CT Scan Interrelationships.- Subgroup Analysis and Dementia: Neuropsychological, CT Scan, and Presenting Symptom Analysis.- Prediction of Deterioration.- Relationship of CT with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Positron Emission Tomography Scanning Techniques.- Summary.- 3 Dementia of the Alzheimer Type: Challenges of Definition and Clinical Diagnosis.- History of Clinical Diagnosis of DAT.- DAT Diagnostic Criteria.- Pathophysiological Correlates of DAT Clinical Manifestations.- Differential Diagnosis of DAT.- DAT and the Neurological Basis of Thought.- 4 Discourse Performance in Subjects with Dementia of the Alzheimer Type.- Subjects.- Materials and Methods.- Methods for Data Analysis.- Results.- Discussion.- Appendix 4.A: Language Samples from DAT Patients.- 5 Neuropsychological Assessment and Treatment of Head Trauma Patients.- The Problem.- Organic Factors.- Estimating Severity and Predicting Outcome.- The Recovery Model.- Preinjury Factors.- Cognitive Dysfunction.- Emotional Factors.- Social and Vocational Factors.- Rehabilitation.- 6 Automatic Processing of Frequency Information in Survivors of Severe Closed Head Injury.- Automatic/Effortful Framework.- Frequency Processing in Neurologically Intact Populations.- Studies of Frequency Processing in the Aged and Psychiatric/Neurological Groups.- Automatic and Effortful Processing in Survivors of Severe Closed Head Injury.- Implications of Automatic Processing Deficits for Amnesia.- 7 Linguistic Competence and Level of Cognitive Functioning in Adults with Traumatic Closed Head Injury.- Method.- Results.- Discussion.- Appendix 7.A.- 8 A Paradigm Shift in Memory Rehabilitation.- Traditional Approaches to Memory Rehabilitation.- Toward an Ecological Approach to Memory Rehabilitation.- Results of a Survey of Forgetting Experiences.- A Three-Pronged Approach to Memory Rehabilitation.- Conclusions.- 9 Closed Head Trauma: Somatic, Ophthalmic, and Cognitive Impairments in Nonhospitalized Patients.- Method.- Results.- Conclusions.- Appendix 9.A.- 10 Activation of Semantic Relations in Alzheimer's and Huntington's Disease.- Lexicosemantic Processing in HD.- Lexical and Semantic Priming in DAT.- General Discussion and Conclusions.- Author Index.
In summary, considerable controversy and research have been generated from the automatic/effortful distinction. Hasher and Zacks (1979) initially stated that all manipulations (e. g. , practice, individual differences such as age, orienting instructions) must produce null effects in order to satisfy the criteria that a process is "automatic. " However, Zacks et al. (1984) have more recently noted that automatic processes may range in degree from relative insensitivity to task and subject variables (e. g. , frequency processing) to those that are more vulnera ble to disruptive effects (e. g. , temporal processing). A review of the literature reveals that individuals are sensitive to frequency information even if manipUla tions alter the slope of the judgments. Perhaps the application of dual-task metho dology to the measurement of capacity demands will be useful in classifying processes along an attentional continuum. Moreover, there has been a tendency to dichotomize automatic/effortful processes rather than to characterize them as ranging from low to high attentional demands. Recent evidence (Maki & Ostby, 1987) suggests that attention may be important only in the initial (early) stages of processing frequency information. Therefore, a major difference that may emerge between automatic and effortful processing could be the degree of sus tained attention required from individuals. In the following section, we review the findings obtained in the application of the automatic/effortful framework to the elderly and neurological/psychiatric populations.
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