Soil Surface Management in the Tropics for Intensive Land Use and High and Sustained Production.- I. Introduction.- II. Land, Rainfall, and Vegetation.- III. Soil Resources of the Tropics.- IV. Traditional Farming Systems and Soil Productivity.- V. Soil Degradation and Ecological Fragility in the Tropics.- VI. Basis of Improving Traditional Farming Systems.- VII. Components of Technology for Improving Traditional Agriculture.- VIII. An Agroecological Approach to Improving Traditional Agriculture in the Tropics.- IX. Research and Development Priorities.- References.- Effect of Surface Residues on Soil Water Storage.- I. Introduction.- II. Early Studies with Surface Residues.- III. Stubble Mulch Tillage.- IV. Early Chemical Fallow (No Tillage).- V. Chemical Fallow with Improved Herbicides.- VI. Managing Irrigated Crop Residues.- VII. Residue Effects-Subhumid and Humid Regions.- VIII. Surface Residue Effects on Evaporation.- IX. Surface Residue Effects on Water Conservation from Snow.- X. Summary and Conclusions.- References.- Physical Properties and Processes of Puddled Rice Soils.- I. Introduction.- II. The Puddling Process.- III. Puddling Indices.- IV. Effects of Puddling.- V. Regeneration of Soil Structure.- VI. Is Puddling Essential?.- VII. Research Gaps.- VIII. Summary.- References.- Origin, Evolution, and Classification of Paddy Soils in China.- I. Paddy Soils of China.- II. Distribution of Paddy Soils in China.- III. Genesis of Paddy Soils.- IV. Genetic Horizons of Paddy Soil.- V. Classification of Paddy Soils.- VI. A Suggestion of Paddy Soil Classification in Soil Taxonomy.- References.- Phosphorus Interactions with Other Nutrients and Lime in Field Cropping Systems.- I. Introduction.- II. Interpretive Model.- III. Phosphorus × Nitrogen.- IV. Phosphorus × Zinc.- V. Phosphorus × Lime.- VI. Phosphorus × Silicon.- VII. Phosphorus × Iron.- VIII. Phosphorus × Copper.- IX. Phosphorus × Potassium.- X. Phosphorus × Sulfur.- XI. Phosphorus × Molybdenum.- XII. Phosphorus × Magnesium.- XIII. Other Interactions.- XIV. A Look to the Future.- References.
The world needs for food and fiber continue to increase. Population growth in the developing countries peaked at 2. 4% a year in 1965 and has fallen to about 2. 1%. However, in many developing countries almost half the people are under 15 years of age, poised to enter their productive and reproductive years. The challenges to produce enough food for this growing population will remain great Even more challenging is growing the food in the areas of greatest need. Presently the world has great surpluses of food and fiber in some areas while there are devastating deficiencies in other areas. Economic conditions and the lack of suitable infrastructure for distribution all too often limit the alleviation of hunger even when there are adequate supplies, sometimes even within the country itself. World hunger can be solved in the long run only by increasing crop production in the areas where the population is growing most rapidly. This will require increased efforts of both the developed and developing countries. Much of the technology that is so successful for crop production in the developed countries cannot be utilized directly in the developing countries. Many of the principles, however, can and must be adapted to the conditions, both physical and economic, of the developing countries.
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