I The Status of Marine Debris.- Section I. Amounts, Types, and Distribution.- 1. Debris in the Mediterranean Sea: Types, Quantities, and Behavior.- 2. Distribution of Floating Debris in the North Pacific Ocean: Sighting Surveys 1986-1991.- 3. Marine Debris in the Caribbean Region.- 4. Distribution, Type, Accumulation, and Source of Marine Debris in the United States, 1989-1993.- 5. Pelagic Plastics and Other Seaborne Persistent Synthetic Debris: A Review of Southern Hemisphere Perspectives.- SECTION II. Biological Impacts.- 6. The Highest Global Concentrations and Increased Abundance of Oceanic Plastic Debris in the North Pacific: Evidence from Seabirds.- 7. Encrusters, Epibionts, and Other Biota Associated with Pelagic Plastics: A Review of Biogeographical, Environmental, and Conservation Issues.- 8. Impacts of Marine Debris: Entanglement of Marine Life in Marine Debris Including a Comprehensive List of Species with Entanglement and Ingestion Records.- 9. Ghost-Fishing Gear: Have Fishing Practices During the Past Few Years Reduced the Impact?.- II The Sources and Solutions to the Marine Debris Dilemma.- SECTION III. The Socioeconomics of Marine Debris.- 10. A Socioeconomic Theory for Controlling Marine Debris: Is Moral Suasion a Reliable Policy Tool?.- 11. Marine Debris: Benefits, Costs, and Choices.- 12. The Economic Value of Controlling Marine Debris.- 13. A Comprehensive Waste Management Model for Marine Debris.- SECTION IV. Considering the Maritime Sources of Debris.- 14. Shipping and Marine Debris in the Wider Caribbean: Answering a Difficult Challenge.- 15. The Challenges of Ship-Generated Garbage in the Caribbean.- 16. MARPOL Annex V, Commercial Ships, and Port Reception Facilities: Making It Work.- 17. Comparison of MARPOL Annex V Port Reception Facilities for Garbage in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and the United Kingdom.- 18. Waste Disposal Practices of Fishing Vessels: Canada's East Coast, 1990-1991.- 19. Dealing with Ship-Generated Plastics Waste on U.S. Navy Surface Ships.- 20. Recreational Boaters and Marine Debris: How We Can Effectively Reduce Littering.- 21. A Strategy to Reduce, Control, and Minimize Vessel-Source Marine Debris.- SECTION V. Considering the Land-Based Sources of Debris.- 22. Legal Regulation of Upland Discharges of Marine Debris: From Local to Global Controls and Back.- 23. Comparison of the Results of Two EPA Marine Debris Studies.- 24. New York and New Jersey Beaches: "It Was a Very Good Year".- 25. Sources of Plastic Pellets in the Aquatic Environment.- 26. Implementation and Assessment of a Floatables Action Plan for the New York-New Jersey Harbor Complex.- 27. The Control of Floating Debris in an Urban River.- 28. Linkages Between Land-Based Sources of Pollution and Marine Debris.- 29. Upland Sources of Marine Debris on the Shorelines of Puerto Rico.- 30. Land-Based Sources of Marine Debris and Contamination of the Coastal Areas of the Caribbean Islands of St. Lucia, Dominica, and the British Virgin Islands.- 31. Strategies to Reduce, Control, and Minimize Land-Source Marine Debris.- Literature Cited.
Marine debris is a global pollution problem affecting marine life, maritime commerce and environmental quality. Scientists, policymakers and the public must be knowledgeable about the source, impact and control efforts if effective solutions are to be developed. Marine Debris addresses the origin of persistent solid waste in the ocean, from urban and rural discharges to waste from ships and the recreational use of oceans. The book identifies key issues from biological, technological, economic and legal perspectives, and gives a framework for controlling each of the main sources of marine debris.
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