I General Issues.- 1. A Critical Perspective on Defense Mechanisms.- Freudian Psychoanalytic Defense Mechanisms.- The Work of Vaillant and Horowitz.- Conclusions.- References.- 2. Defense Mechanisms in the Clinic and in the Laboratory: An Attempt at Bridging the Gap.- Early Formulations and Conceptual Developments.- Contributions of Ego Analysts: Anna Freud and Others.- Conceptual Revisions and Modifications.- Defenses as Predictable and Observable Variables: From the Clinic to the Laboratory.- Unanswered Questions: Future Research Objectives.- References.- 3. What Is a Mechanism of Defense?.- References.- 4. Percept-Genesis and the Study of Defensive Processes.- Microgenesis, Percept-Genesis, and the Theory of Perception.- Schools and Research Paradigms of Microgenesis.- The Perceptual Process.- Parallelisms.- Determinants of the Percept.- The Technique of Information Reduction.- The Theory of Defense.- Modification of the Classical Theory.- Percept-Genesis and the Study of Defensive Processes.- Validity of the Percept-Genetic Approach.- References.- II Methodological Considerations.- 5. The Measurement of Defense Mechanisms by Self-Report Questionnaires.- The Historical Roots of Defense Mechanisms: A Concept Formulated Without Any Intent of Its Quantification or Experimental Testing.- The Full Scope of the Defensive Process and Different Methods for Its Registration.- Questionnaires and the Theory of Psychometric Measurement.- On the Theoretical Background for the Construction of Different Self-Report Questionnaires for Measuring Defense.- Theoretical and Empirical Implications for Regarding Defense as a Complex Construct.- The Implications of the Complex Model Interpretation of Defense for Further Research.- References.- 6. The Assessment of Primitive Defense Mechanisms by Projective Techniques.- The Empirical Assessment of Defense Mechanisms.- The Assessment of Low Level Defense Mechanisms by Means of the Rorschach and the Holtzman Inkblot Technique.- References.- 7. Percept-Genetic Methodology.- The Defense Mechanism Test (DMT).- The Meta-Contrast Technique (MCT).- DMT and MCT: A Comparison.- References.- 8. The Study of Defenses in Psychotherapy Using the Defense Mechanism Rating Scales (DMRS).- Description of the Defense Mechanism Rating Scales.- Potential Significance of Studying Defenses in Psychotherapy.- References.- III Personality and Applied Psychology.- 9. Causal Attributions of Disease as Related to Dynamic Personality Variables.- Method.- Results.- Discussion.- References.- 10. Exploration of the Relationship Between Anxiety and Defense: Semantic Differential Ratings of Defense Mechanism Test Stimuli.- The Experiment.- Method.- Results.- Discussion.- References.- 11. The Cognitive Determinants of Defense Mechanisms.- Cognitive Precursors of Defense Mechanisms.- Belief Constellations Conducive to Defense Mechanisms.- Defense Mechanisms as a Specific Kind of Programs.- Predicting the Application of Defense Mechanisms.- Cognitive Dynamics Underlying Defense Mechanisms.- The Meaning System.- Patterns of Meaning Variables and Defense Mechanisms.- Beliefs and Meaning Variables as Predictors of Defenses.- Modifying Defense Mechanisms.- Summing Up and Some Afterthoughts.- References.- 12. Development of the Repression-Sensitization Construct: With Special Reference to the Discrepancy Between Subjective and Physiological Stress Reactions.- Multiple Variable Approaches with Traditional Instruments.- The Discrepancy Hypothesis.- Person-Oriented Approaches.- Concluding Remark.- References.- 13. Augmenting/Reducing: A Link Between Perceptual and Emotional Aspects of Psychophysiological Individuality.- Classical Notions of Augmenting/Reducing.- Recent Work.- References.- 14. A Psychodynamic Activation Study of Female Oedipal Fantasies Using Subliminal and Percept-Genetic Techniques.- Hypotheses.- Man Conditions.- Woman Conditions.- Method.- Results.- Discussion.- References.- 15. Aspects of the Construct Validity of the
What is the scientific status and the "truth value" of the concept of defense mechanisms? Among contemporary psychologists, three types of answers to this question may be expected. Some would wholeheartedly endorse the theoretical, clinical, and research value of this notion; others would reject it outright. Between these two extremes, a large number of observers, perhaps the majority, would suspend their judgment. Their attitude, compounded of hope and doubt, would capitalize on defense as an interesting and promising concept. At the same time, these psy chologists would express skepticism and disappointment over its clinical limitations, theoretical ambiguity, and research failures. The present volume is primarily addressed to the audience of hopeful skeptics-those who have not given up on the notion of defense, yet have been frustrated by the difficulties of incorporating it into the modern, streamlined structure of psychology. To this end, we have brought together theoretical and empirical contributions germane to defense together with reports about their applications to clinical and personality assessment, especially in relation to psychopathology, psychosomatics, and psycho therapeutic intervention.
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