The symposium "Pacific Salmon and Their Ecosystems: Status and Future Options',' and this book resulted from initial efforts in 1992 by Robert J. Naiman and Deanna J. Stouder to examine the problem of declining Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). Our primary goal was to determine informational gaps. As we explored different scientific sources, state, provincial, and federal agencies, as well as non-profit and fishing organizations, we found that the information existed but was not being communicated across institutional and organizational boundaries. At this juncture, we decided to create a steering committee and plan a symposium to bring together researchers, managers, and resource users. The steering committee consisted of members from state and federal agencies, non-profit organizations, and private industry (see Acknowledgments for names and affiliations). In February 1993, we met at the University of Washington in Seattle to begin planning the symposium. The steering committee spent the next four months developing the conceptual framework for the symposium and the subsequent book. Our objectives were to accomplish the following: (1) assess changes in anadromous Pacific Northwest salmonid populations, (2) examine factors responsible for those changes, and (3) identify options available to society to restore Pacific salmon in the Northwest. The symposium on Pacific Salmon was held in Seattle, Washington, January 10-12, 1994. Four hundred and thirty-five people listened to oral presentations and examined more than forty posters over two and a half days. We made a deliberate attempt to draw in speakers and attendees from outside the Pacific Northwest.
Contributors. Preface. Reviewers. Where are We?- Resources at the brink. Part I. Introduction to a complex problem: Introduction to a complex problem; Old traditions that led to abuses of salmon and their ecosystems; The origin and speciation of Oncorhynchus revisited. Part II.Status of Pacific Northwest Salmonids: Pacific salmon status and trends- a coastwide perspective; Analyzing trends and variability- On the nature of data and their role in salmon conservation; Information on requirements for salmon management; Evaluating salmon management institutions: the importance of performance measures, temporal scales, and production cycles. Regional trends- California salmon and steelhead: beyond the crossroads; Idaho's salmon: can we count every last one?; Status of wild salmon and steelhead stocks in Washington state; The status of salmon and steelhead in Oregon; Status of Alaska salmon; Pacific salmon abundance trends in the Fraser river watershed compared with other British Columbia systems. Factors contributing to stock declines- Genetic factors contributing to declines of Anadromous salmonids in the Pacific northwest; The role of competition and predation in the decline of the pacific salmon and steelhead; Degradation and loss of Anadromous salmonoid habitat in the Pacific northwest; The role harvest management in the future of Pacific salmon populations: shaping human behavior to enable the persistence of salmon; Salmon production in changing ocean domains. Part three: Salmon policies and politics: Salmon Fisheries in the Pacific northwest: how are harvest management decisions made?; Habitat policy for salomon in the Pacific northwest; Water management and water quality decision making in the range of Pacific salmon habitat; A resource in crisis: changing the measure of salmon management. Part IV: Technological solutions: cost-effective restoration: Watershed management and Pacific salmon: desired future conditions; Restoration of Riparian and aquatic systems for improved fisheries habitat in the upper Columbian basin; Rehabilitation for Pacific salmon in their ecosystems: what can artificial propagation contribute?; Managing resources with incomplete information: making the best of a bad situation; Is ecological risk assessment useful for resolving complex ecological problems?; An ecosystem-based approach to management of salmon and steelhead habitat. Part V: Institutional solutions: Effective long-term planning management: Do we need institutional change?; To till the water: a history of ideas in fisheries conservation; Values in the valuing of salmon; Organizational systems and the burden of proof; Salmon, stewardship, and human values: the challenge of intergration; Part VI:Where do we go from here?: Where do we go from here? An outsider's view; Sustaining salmon: three principles. are habitat management decisions made?; How are water management and water quality decisions made?; How are hatchery decisions made?; Overview of performance measures; How does this information help us and do these decisions influence salmon populations?; Part four: Technologial Solutions: cost-effective restoration: Desired future conditions and freshwater habitat restoration; Role of hatcheries and other supplementation programs; New approaches to water management; Managing resources with incomplete information: making the best of a bad situation; Ecological risk assessment: protecting Northwest anadromous salmonid stocks; An ecosystem-based approach to management of salmon steelhead habitat; Part Five: Institutional solutions: effective long-term planning and management: Philosophical basis of values: economic versus ecological perspectives; Organizational systems and the burden of proof; Ecosystem planning: what does this mean?
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